Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                            Y. Cui
Request for Comments: 7596                           Tsinghua University
Category: Standards Track                                         Q. Sun
ISSN: 2070-1721                                            China Telecom
                                                            M. Boucadair
                                                          France Telecom
                                                                 T. Tsou
                                                     Huawei Technologies
                                                                  Y. Lee
                                                               I. Farrer
                                                     Deutsche Telekom AG
                                                               July 2015
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                            Y. Cui
Request for Comments: 7596                           Tsinghua University
Category: Standards Track                                         Q. Sun
ISSN: 2070-1721                                            China Telecom
                                                            M. Boucadair
                                                          France Telecom
                                                                 T. Tsou
                                                     Huawei Technologies
                                                                  Y. Lee
                                                               I. Farrer
                                                     Deutsche Telekom AG
                                                               July 2015

Lightweight 4over6: An Extension to the Dual-Stack Lite Architecture




Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite) (RFC 6333) describes an architecture for transporting IPv4 packets over an IPv6 network. This document specifies an extension to DS-Lite called "Lightweight 4over6", which moves the Network Address and Port Translation (NAPT) function from the centralized DS-Lite tunnel concentrator to the tunnel client located in the Customer Premises Equipment (CPE). This removes the requirement for a Carrier Grade NAT function in the tunnel concentrator and reduces the amount of centralized state that must be held to a per-subscriber level. In order to delegate the NAPT function and make IPv4 address sharing possible, port-restricted IPv4 addresses are allocated to the CPEs.

双栈Lite(DS Lite)(RFC 6333)描述了通过IPv6网络传输IPv4数据包的体系结构。本文档指定了DS Lite的一个扩展名为“轻量级4over6”,它将网络地址和端口转换(NAPT)功能从集中式DS Lite隧道集中器移动到位于客户场所设备(CPE)中的隧道客户端。这消除了隧道集中器中对载波级NAT功能的要求,并减少了必须保持在每个用户级别的集中式状态量。为了委派NAPT功能并使IPv4地址共享成为可能,将端口受限的IPv4地址分配给CPE。

Status of This Memo


This is an Internet Standards Track document.


This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has received public review and has been approved for publication by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.

本文件是互联网工程任务组(IETF)的产品。它代表了IETF社区的共识。它已经接受了公众审查,并已被互联网工程指导小组(IESG)批准出版。有关互联网标准的更多信息,请参见RFC 5741第2节。

Information about the current status of this document, any errata, and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at


Copyright Notice


Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.

版权所有(c)2015 IETF信托基金和确定为文件作者的人员。版权所有。

This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents ( in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.

本文件受BCP 78和IETF信托有关IETF文件的法律规定的约束(自本文件出版之日起生效。请仔细阅读这些文件,因为它们描述了您对本文件的权利和限制。从本文件中提取的代码组件必须包括信托法律条款第4.e节中所述的简化BSD许可证文本,并提供简化BSD许可证中所述的无担保。

Table of Contents


   1. Introduction ....................................................3
   2. Conventions .....................................................4
   3. Terminology .....................................................5
   4. Lightweight 4over6 Architecture .................................6
   5. Lightweight B4 Behavior .........................................7
      5.1. Lightweight B4 Provisioning with DHCPv6 ....................7
      5.2. Lightweight B4 Data-Plane Behavior ........................10
           5.2.1. Fragmentation Behavior .............................11
   6. Lightweight AFTR Behavior ......................................12
      6.1. Binding Table Maintenance .................................12
      6.2. lwAFTR Data-Plane Behavior ................................13
   7. Additional IPv4 Address and Port-Set Provisioning Mechanisms ...14
   8. ICMP Processing ................................................14
      8.1. ICMPv4 Processing by the lwAFTR ...........................15
      8.2. ICMPv4 Processing by the lwB4 .............................15
   9. Security Considerations ........................................15
   10. References ....................................................16
      10.1. Normative References .....................................16
      10.2. Informative References ...................................17
   Acknowledgements ..................................................19
   Contributors ......................................................19
   Authors' Addresses ................................................21
   1. Introduction ....................................................3
   2. Conventions .....................................................4
   3. Terminology .....................................................5
   4. Lightweight 4over6 Architecture .................................6
   5. Lightweight B4 Behavior .........................................7
      5.1. Lightweight B4 Provisioning with DHCPv6 ....................7
      5.2. Lightweight B4 Data-Plane Behavior ........................10
           5.2.1. Fragmentation Behavior .............................11
   6. Lightweight AFTR Behavior ......................................12
      6.1. Binding Table Maintenance .................................12
      6.2. lwAFTR Data-Plane Behavior ................................13
   7. Additional IPv4 Address and Port-Set Provisioning Mechanisms ...14
   8. ICMP Processing ................................................14
      8.1. ICMPv4 Processing by the lwAFTR ...........................15
      8.2. ICMPv4 Processing by the lwB4 .............................15
   9. Security Considerations ........................................15
   10. References ....................................................16
      10.1. Normative References .....................................16
      10.2. Informative References ...................................17
   Acknowledgements ..................................................19
   Contributors ......................................................19
   Authors' Addresses ................................................21
1. Introduction
1. 介绍

Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite) [RFC6333] defines a model for providing IPv4 access over an IPv6 network using two well-known technologies: IP in IP [RFC2473] and Network Address Translation (NAT). The DS-Lite architecture defines two major functional elements as follows:

双栈Lite(DS Lite)[RFC6333]使用两种众所周知的技术定义了通过IPv6网络提供IPv4访问的模型:IP中的IP[RFC2473]和网络地址转换(NAT)。DS Lite体系结构定义了以下两个主要功能元素:

Basic Bridging BroadBand (B4) element: A function implemented on a dual-stack-capable node (either a directly connected device or a CPE) that creates an IPv4-in-IPv6 tunnel to an AFTR.


Address Family Transition Router (AFTR) element: The combination of an IPv4-in-IPv6 tunnel endpoint and an IPv4-IPv4 NAT implemented on the same node.

地址族转换路由器(AFTR)元素:IPv4-in-IPv6隧道端点和在同一节点上实现的IPv4-IPv4 NAT的组合。

As the AFTR performs the centralized NAT44 function, it dynamically assigns public IPv4 addresses and ports to a requesting host's traffic (as described in [RFC3022]). To achieve this, the AFTR must dynamically maintain per-flow state in the form of active NAPT sessions. For service providers with a large number of B4 clients, the size and associated costs for scaling the AFTR can quickly become prohibitive. Maintaining per-flow state can also place a large NAPT logging overhead on the service provider in countries where logging is a legal requirement.


This document describes a mechanism called "Lightweight 4over6" (lw4o6), which provides a solution for these problems. By relocating the NAPT functionality from the centralized AFTR to the distributed B4s, a number of benefits can be realized:


o NAPT44 functionality is already widely supported and used in today's CPE devices. lw4o6 uses this to provide private<->public NAPT44, meaning that the service provider does not need a centralized NAT44 function.

o NAPT44功能已经在当今的CPE设备中得到广泛支持和使用。lw4o6使用它来提供私有<->公共NAPT44,这意味着服务提供商不需要集中式NAT44功能。

o The amount of state that must be maintained centrally in the AFTR can be reduced from per-flow to per-subscriber. This reduces the amount of resources (memory and processing power) necessary in the AFTR.

o AFTR中必须集中维护的状态量可以从每个流减少到每个订户。这减少了AFTR所需的资源量(内存和处理能力)。

o The reduction of maintained state results in a greatly reduced logging overhead on the service provider.

o 维护状态的减少大大减少了服务提供者的日志记录开销。

Operators' IPv6 and IPv4 addressing architectures remain independent of each other. Therefore, flexible IPv4/IPv6 addressing schemes can be deployed.


Lightweight 4over6 is a solution designed specifically for complete independence between IPv6 subnet prefixes and IPv4 addresses with or without IPv4 address sharing. This is accomplished by maintaining state for each softwire (per-subscriber state) in the central lwAFTR and a hub-and-spoke forwarding architecture. "Mapping of Address and Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E)" [RFC7597] also offers these capabilities or, alternatively, allows for a reduction of the amount of centralized state using rules to express IPv4/IPv6 address mappings. This introduces an algorithmic relationship between the IPv6 subnet and IPv4 address. This relationship also allows the option of direct, meshed connectivity between users.


The tunneling mechanism remains the same for DS-Lite and Lightweight 4over6. This document describes the changes to DS-Lite that are necessary to implement Lightweight 4over6. These changes mainly concern the configuration parameters and provisioning method necessary for the functional elements.

DS Lite和轻量级4over6的隧道机制保持不变。本文档描述了实现轻量级4over6所需的DS Lite更改。这些更改主要涉及功能元素所需的配置参数和配置方法。

One of the features of Lightweight 4over6 is to keep per-subscriber state in the service provider's network. This technique is categorized as a "binding approach" [Unified-v4-in-v6] that defines a unified IPv4-in-IPv6 softwire CPE.


This document extends the mechanism defined in [RFC7040] by allowing address sharing. The solution in this document is also a variant of Address plus Port (A+P) called "Binding Table Mode" (see Section 4.4 of [RFC6346]).


This document focuses on architectural considerations, particularly on the expected behavior of the involved functional elements and their interfaces. Deployment-specific issues such as redundancy and provisioning policy are out of scope for this document.


2. Conventions
2. 习俗

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].


3. Terminology
3. 术语

This document defines the following terms:


Lightweight 4over6 (lw4o6): An IPv4-over-IPv6 hub-and-spoke mechanism that extends DS-Lite by moving the IPv4 translation (NAPT44) function from the AFTR to the B4.

轻量级4over6(lw4o6):一种IPv4-over-IPv6中心辐射机制,通过将IPv4转换(NAPT44)功能从AFTR移动到B4来扩展DS Lite。

Lightweight B4 (lwB4): A B4 element [RFC6333] that supports Lightweight 4over6 extensions. An lwB4 is a function implemented on a dual-stack-capable node -- either a directly connected device or a CPE -- that supports port-restricted IPv4 address allocation, implements NAPT44 functionality, and creates a tunnel to an lwAFTR.


Lightweight AFTR (lwAFTR): An AFTR element [RFC6333] that supports the Lightweight 4over6 extension. An lwAFTR is an IPv4-in-IPv6 tunnel endpoint that maintains per-subscriber address binding only and does not perform a NAPT44 function.


Restricted port set: A non-overlapping range of allowed external ports allocated to the lwB4 to use for NAPT44. Source ports of IPv4 packets sent by the B4 must belong to the assigned port set. The port set is used for all port-aware IP protocols (TCP, UDP, the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP), etc.).


Port-restricted IPv4 address: A public IPv4 address with a restricted port set. In Lightweight 4over6, multiple B4s may share the same IPv4 address; however, their port sets must be non-overlapping.


Throughout the remainder of this document, the terms "B4" and "AFTR" should be understood to refer specifically to a DS-Lite implementation. The terms "lwB4" and "lwAFTR" refer to a Lightweight 4over6 implementation.

在本文件的其余部分,术语“B4”和“AFTR”应理解为专门指DS Lite实现。术语“lwB4”和“lwAFTR”指的是轻量级4over6实现。

4. Lightweight 4over6 Architecture
4. 轻量级4over6体系结构

The Lightweight 4over6 architecture is functionally similar to DS-Lite. lwB4s and an lwAFTR are connected through an IPv6-enabled network. Both approaches use an IPv4-in-IPv6 encapsulation scheme to deliver IPv4 connectivity. The following figure shows the data plane with the main functional change between DS-Lite and lw4o6:

轻量级4over6体系结构在功能上类似于DS Lite。LWB4和lwAFTR通过支持IPv6的网络连接。这两种方法都使用IPv4-in-IPv6封装方案来提供IPv4连接。下图显示了DS Lite和lw4o6之间主要功能变化的数据平面:

   +--------+   +---------+  IPv4-in-IPv6  +---------+   +-------------+
   |IPv4 LAN|---|    B4   |================|AFTR/NAPT|---|IPv4 Internet|
   +--------+   +---------+                +---------+   +-------------+
                  DS-Lite NAPT model: all state in the AFTR
   +--------+   +---------+  IPv4-in-IPv6  +---------+   +-------------+
   |IPv4 LAN|---|    B4   |================|AFTR/NAPT|---|IPv4 Internet|
   +--------+   +---------+                +---------+   +-------------+
                  DS-Lite NAPT model: all state in the AFTR
   +--------+   +---------+  IPv4-in-IPv6  +------+   +-------------+
   |IPv4 LAN|---|lwB4/NAPT|================|lwAFTR|---|IPv4 Internet|
   +--------+   +---------+                +------+   +-------------+
                           lw4o6 NAPT model:
           subscriber state in the lwAFTR, NAPT state in the lwB4
   +--------+   +---------+  IPv4-in-IPv6  +------+   +-------------+
   |IPv4 LAN|---|lwB4/NAPT|================|lwAFTR|---|IPv4 Internet|
   +--------+   +---------+                +------+   +-------------+
                           lw4o6 NAPT model:
           subscriber state in the lwAFTR, NAPT state in the lwB4

Figure 1: Comparison of DS-Lite and Lightweight 4over6 Data Plane

图1:DS Lite和轻量级4over6数据平面的比较

There are three main components in the Lightweight 4over6 architecture:


o The lwB4, which performs the NAPT function and IPv4/IPv6 encapsulation/decapsulation.

o lwB4,执行NAPT功能和IPv4/IPv6封装/去封装。

o The lwAFTR, which performs the IPv4/IPv6 encapsulation/ decapsulation.

o lwAFTR,执行IPv4/IPv6封装/解除封装。

o The provisioning system, which tells the lwB4 which IPv4 address and port set to use.

o 配置系统,它告诉lwB4要使用的IPv4地址和端口集。

The lwB4 differs from a regular B4 in that it now performs the NAPT functionality. This means that it needs to be provisioned with the public IPv4 address and port set it is allowed to use. This information is provided through a provisioning mechanism such as DHCP, the Port Control Protocol (PCP) [RFC6887], or the Broadband Forum's TR-69 specification [TR069].


The lwAFTR needs to know the binding between the IPv6 address of each subscriber as well as the IPv4 address and port set allocated to each subscriber. This information is used to perform ingress filtering upstream and encapsulation downstream. Note that this is per-subscriber state, as opposed to per-flow state in the regular AFTR case.


The consequence of this architecture is that the information maintained by the provisioning mechanism and the one maintained by the lwAFTR MUST be synchronized (see Figure 2). The precise mechanism whereby this synchronization occurs is out of scope for this document.


The solution specified in this document allows the assignment of either a full or a shared IPv4 address to requesting CPEs. [RFC7040] provides a mechanism for assigning a full IPv4 address only.


                     |       +------------+      |
                     |                           |
                     V                           V
   +--------+   +---------+    IPv4/IPv6     +------+    +-------------+
   |IPv4 LAN|---|lwB4/NAPT|==================|lwAFTR|----|IPv4 Internet|
   +--------+   +---------+                  +------+    +-------------+
                     |       +------------+      |
                     |                           |
                     V                           V
   +--------+   +---------+    IPv4/IPv6     +------+    +-------------+
   |IPv4 LAN|---|lwB4/NAPT|==================|lwAFTR|----|IPv4 Internet|
   +--------+   +---------+                  +------+    +-------------+

Figure 2: Lightweight 4over6 Provisioning Synchronization


5. Lightweight B4 Behavior
5. 轻量化B4行为
5.1. Lightweight B4 Provisioning with DHCPv6
5.1. 使用DHCPv6的轻量级B4资源调配

With DS-Lite, the B4 element only needs to be configured with a single DS-Lite-specific parameter so that it can set up the softwire (the IPv6 address of the AFTR). Its IPv4 address can be taken from the well-known range


In lw4o6, a number of lw4o6-specific configuration parameters must be provisioned to the lwB4. These are:


o IPv6 address for the lwAFTR

o lwAFTR的IPv6地址

o IPv4 external (public) address for NAPT44

o NAPT44的IPv4外部(公共)地址

o Restricted port set to use for NAPT44

o 设置为用于NAPT44的受限端口

o IPv6 binding prefix

o IPv6绑定前缀

The lwB4 MUST implement DHCPv6-based configuration using OPTION_S46_CONT_LW as described in Section 5.3 of [RFC7598]. This means that the lifetime of the softwire and the derived configuration information (e.g., IPv4 shared address, IPv4 address) are bound to the lifetime of the DHCPv6 lease. If stateful IPv4 configuration or additional IPv4 configuration information is required, DHCP 4o6 [RFC7341] MUST be used.

lwB4必须使用[RFC7598]第5.3节中所述的选项_S46_CONT_LW实现基于DHCPv6的配置。这意味着软线的生存期和派生的配置信息(例如,IPv4共享地址、IPv4地址)绑定到DHCPv6租约的生存期。如果需要有状态IPv4配置或其他IPv4配置信息,则必须使用DHCP 4o6[RFC7341]。

Although it would be possible to extend lw4o6 to have more than one active lw4o6 tunnel configured simultaneously, this document is only concerned with the use of a single tunnel.


The IPv6 binding prefix field is provisioned so that the Customer Edge (CE) can identify the correct prefix to use as the tunnel source. On receipt of the necessary configuration parameters listed above, the lwB4 performs a longest-prefix match between the IPv6 binding prefix and its currently active IPv6 prefixes. The result forms the subnet to be used for sourcing the lw4o6 tunnel. The full /128 address is then constructed in the same manner as [RFC7597].


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   |                  Operator Assigned Prefix                     |
   .                        (64 bits)                              .
   |         Zero Padding          |         IPv4 Address          |
   |       IPv4 Addr cont.         |             PSID              |
    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   |                  Operator Assigned Prefix                     |
   .                        (64 bits)                              .
   |         Zero Padding          |         IPv4 Address          |
   |       IPv4 Addr cont.         |             PSID              |

Figure 3: Construction of the lw4o6 /128 Prefix


Operator Assigned Prefix: IPv6 prefix allocated to the client. If the prefix length is less than 64, it is right-padded with zeros to 64 bits.


Padding: Padding (all zeros).


IPv4 Address: Public IPv4 address allocated to the client.


PSID: Port Set ID. Allocated to the client; left-padded with zeros to 16 bits. If no PSID is provisioned, all zeros.


In the event that the lwB4's IPv6 encapsulation source address is changed for any reason (such as the DHCPv6 lease expiring), the lwB4's dynamic provisioning process MUST be re-initiated. When the lwB4's public IPv4 address or Port Set ID is changed for any reason, the lwB4 MUST flush its NAPT table.


An lwB4 MUST support dynamic port-restricted IPv4 address provisioning. The port-set algorithm for provisioning this is described in Section 5.1 of [RFC7597]. For lw4o6, the number of a-bits SHOULD be 0, thus allocating a single contiguous port set to each lwB4.


Provisioning of the lwB4 using DHCPv6 as described here allocates a single PSID to the client. In the event that the client is concurrently using all of the provisioned L4 ports, it may be unable to initiate any additional outbound connections. DHCPv6-based provisioning does not provide a mechanism for the client to request more L4 port numbers. Other provisioning mechanisms (e.g., PCP-based provisioning [PCP-PORT_SET]) provide this function. Issues relevant to IP address sharing are discussed in more detail in [RFC6269].


Unless an lwB4 is being allocated a full IPv4 address, it is RECOMMENDED that PSIDs containing the system ports (0-1023) not be allocated to lwB4s. The reserved ports are more likely to be reserved by middleware, and therefore we recommend that they not be issued to clients other than as a deliberate assignment. Section 5.2.2 of [RFC6269] provides analysis of allocating system ports to clients with IPv4 address sharing.


In the event that the lwB4 receives an ICMPv6 error message (Type 1, Code 5) originating from the lwAFTR, the lwB4 interprets this to mean that no matching entry in the lwAFTR's binding table has been found, so the IPv4 payload is not being forwarded by the lwAFTR. The lwB4 MAY then re-initiate the dynamic port-restricted provisioning process. The lwB4's re-initiation policy SHOULD be configurable.


On receipt of such an ICMP error message, the lwB4 MUST validate the source address to be the same as the lwAFTR address that is configured. In the event that these addresses do not match, the lwB4 MUST discard the ICMP error message.


In order to prevent forged ICMP messages (using the spoofed lwAFTR address as the source) from being sent to lwB4s, the operator can implement network ingress filtering as described in [RFC2827].


The DNS considerations described in Sections 5.5 and 6.4 of [RFC6333] apply to Lightweight 4over6; lw4o6 implementations MUST comply with all requirements stated there.


5.2. Lightweight B4 Data-Plane Behavior
5.2. 轻量级B4数据平面行为

Several sections of [RFC6333] provide background information on the B4's data-plane functionality and MUST be implemented by the lwB4, as they are common to both solutions. The relevant sections are:


5.2 Encapsulation Covering encapsulation and decapsulation of tunneled traffic

5.2 封装覆盖隧道交通的封装和去封装

5.3 Fragmentation and Reassembly Covering MTU and fragmentation considerations (referencing [RFC2473])

5.3 涵盖MTU和碎片注意事项的碎片和重新组装(参考[RFC2473])

7.1 Tunneling Covering tunneling and Traffic Class mapping between IPv4 and IPv6 (referencing [RFC2473]). Also see [RFC2983]

7.1 隧道覆盖IPv4和IPv6之间的隧道和流量类映射(参考[RFC2473])。另见[RFC2983]

The lwB4 element performs IPv4 address translation (NAPT44) as well as encapsulation and decapsulation. It runs standard NAPT44 [RFC3022] using the allocated port-restricted address as its external IPv4 address and range of source ports.


The working flow of the lwB4 is illustrated in Figure 4.


                        |     lwB4    |
      +--------+  IPv4  |------+------| IPv4-in-IPv6  +----------+
      |IPv4 LAN|------->|      |Encap.|-------------->|Configured|
      |        |<-------| NAPT |  or  |<--------------|  lwAFTR  |
      +--------+        |      |Decap.|               +----------+
                        |     lwB4    |
      +--------+  IPv4  |------+------| IPv4-in-IPv6  +----------+
      |IPv4 LAN|------->|      |Encap.|-------------->|Configured|
      |        |<-------| NAPT |  or  |<--------------|  lwAFTR  |
      +--------+        |      |Decap.|               +----------+

Figure 4: Working Flow of the lwB4


Hosts connected to the customer's network behind the lwB4 source IPv4 packets with an [RFC1918] address. When the lwB4 receives such an IPv4 packet, it performs a NAPT44 function on the source address and port by using the public IPv4 address and a port number from the allocated port set. Then, it encapsulates the packet with an IPv6 header. The destination IPv6 address is the lwAFTR's IPv6 address, and the source IPv6 address is the lwB4's IPv6 tunnel endpoint address. Finally, the lwB4 forwards the encapsulated packet to the configured lwAFTR.


When the lwB4 receives an IPv4-in-IPv6 packet from the lwAFTR, it decapsulates the IPv4 packet from the IPv6 packet. Then, it performs NAPT44 translation on the destination address and port, based on the available information in its local NAPT44 table.


If the IPv6 source address does not match the configured lwAFTR address, then the packet MUST be discarded. If the decapsulated IPv4 packet does not match the lwB4's configuration (i.e., invalid destination IPv4 address or port), then the packet MUST be dropped. An ICMPv4 error message (Type 3, Code 13 -- Destination Unreachable, Communication Administratively Prohibited) MAY be sent back to the lwAFTR. The ICMP policy SHOULD be configurable.


The lwB4 is responsible for performing Application Layer Gateway (ALG) functions (e.g., SIP, FTP) and other NAPT traversal mechanisms (e.g., Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) IGD (Internet Gateway Device), the NAT Port Mapping Protocol (NAT-PMP), manual binding configuration, PCP) for the internal hosts, if necessary. This requirement is typical for NAPT44 gateways available today.


It is possible that an lwB4 is co-located in a host. In this case, the functions of NAPT44 and encapsulation/decapsulation are implemented inside the host.


5.2.1. Fragmentation Behavior
5.2.1. 破碎行为

For TCP and UDP traffic, the NAPT44 implemented in the lwB4 MUST conform to the behavior and best current practices documented in [RFC4787], [RFC5508], and [RFC5382]. If the lwB4 supports the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP), then the requirements in [RFC5597] MUST be implemented.


The NAPT44 in the lwB4 MUST implement ICMP message handling behavior conforming to the best current practice documented in [RFC5508]. If the lwB4 receives an ICMP error (for errors detected inside the IPv6 tunnel), the node relays the ICMP error message to the original source (the lwAFTR). This behavior SHOULD be implemented conforming to Section 8 of [RFC2473].


If IPv4 hosts behind different lwB4s sharing the same IPv4 address send fragments to the same IPv4 destination host outside the Lightweight 4over6 domain, those hosts may use the same IPv4 fragmentation identifier, resulting in incorrect reassembly of the fragments at the destination host. Given that the IPv4 fragmentation identifier is a 16-bit field, it could be used similarly to port ranges: An lwB4 could rewrite the IPv4 fragmentation identifier to be within its allocated port set, if the resulting fragment identifier space is large enough related to the rate at which fragments are


sent. However, splitting the identifier space in this fashion would increase the probability of reassembly collision for all connections through the lwB4. See also Section 5.3.1 of [RFC6864].


6. Lightweight AFTR Behavior
6. 轻量化AFTR行为
6.1. Binding Table Maintenance
6.1. 绑定表维护

The lwAFTR maintains an address binding table containing the binding between the lwB4's IPv6 address, the allocated IPv4 address, and the restricted port set. Unlike the DS-Lite extended binding table, which is a 5-tuple NAPT table and is defined in Section 6.6 of [RFC6333], each entry in the Lightweight 4over6 binding table contains the following 3-tuples:

lwAFTR维护一个地址绑定表,其中包含lwB4的IPv6地址、分配的IPv4地址和受限端口集之间的绑定。与DS Lite扩展绑定表不同,DS Lite扩展绑定表是一个5元组NAPT表,在[RFC6333]的第6.6节中定义,轻量级4over6绑定表中的每个条目都包含以下3元组:

o IPv6 address for a single lwB4

o 单个lwB4的IPv6地址

o Public IPv4 address

o 公共IPv4地址

o Restricted port set

o 受限端口集

The entry has two functions: the IPv6 encapsulation of inbound IPv4 packets destined to the lwB4 and the validation of outbound IPv4-in-IPv6 packets received from the lwB4 for decapsulation.


The lwAFTR does not perform NAPT and so does not need session entries.


The lwAFTR MUST synchronize the binding information with the port-restricted address provisioning process. If the lwAFTR does not participate in the port-restricted address provisioning process, the binding MUST be synchronized through other methods (e.g., out-of-band static update).


If the lwAFTR participates in the port-restricted provisioning process, then its binding table MUST be created as part of this process.


For all provisioning processes, the lifetime of binding table entries MUST be synchronized with the lifetime of address allocations.


6.2. lwAFTR Data-Plane Behavior
6.2. lwAFTR数据平面行为

Several sections of [RFC6333] provide background information on the AFTR's data-plane functionality and MUST be implemented by the lwAFTR, as they are common to both solutions. The relevant sections are:


6.2 Encapsulation Covering encapsulation and decapsulation of tunneled traffic

6.2 封装覆盖隧道交通的封装和去封装

6.3 Fragmentation and Reassembly Fragmentation and reassembly considerations (referencing [RFC2473])

6.3 碎片和重新组装碎片和重新组装注意事项(参考[RFC2473])

7.1 Tunneling Covering tunneling and Traffic Class mapping between IPv4 and IPv6 (referencing [RFC2473]). Also see [RFC2983]

7.1 隧道覆盖IPv4和IPv6之间的隧道和流量类映射(参考[RFC2473])。另见[RFC2983]

When the lwAFTR receives an IPv4-in-IPv6 packet from an lwB4, it decapsulates the IPv6 header and verifies the source addresses and port in the binding table. If both the source IPv4 and IPv6 addresses match a single entry in the binding table and the source port is in the allowed port set for that entry, the lwAFTR forwards the packet to the IPv4 destination.


If no match is found (e.g., no matching IPv4 address entry, port out of range), the lwAFTR MUST discard or implement a policy (such as redirection) on the packet. An ICMPv6 Type 1, Code 5 (Destination Unreachable, source address failed ingress/egress policy) error message MAY be sent back to the requesting lwB4. The ICMP policy SHOULD be configurable.


When the lwAFTR receives an inbound IPv4 packet, it uses the IPv4 destination address and port to look up the destination lwB4's IPv6 address in its binding table. If a match is found, the lwAFTR encapsulates the IPv4 packet. The source is the lwAFTR's IPv6 address, and the destination is the lwB4's IPv6 address from the matched entry. Then, the lwAFTR forwards the packet to the lwB4 natively over the IPv6 network.


If no match is found, the lwAFTR MUST discard the packet. An ICMPv4 Type 3, Code 1 (Destination Unreachable, Host Unreachable) error message MAY be sent back. The ICMP policy SHOULD be configurable.


The lwAFTR MUST support hairpinning of traffic between two lwB4s, by performing decapsulation and re-encapsulation of packets from one lwB4 that need to be sent to another lwB4 associated with the same AFTR. The hairpinning policy MUST be configurable.


7. Additional IPv4 Address and Port-Set Provisioning Mechanisms
7. 其他IPv4地址和端口集配置机制

In addition to the DHCPv6-based mechanism described in Section 5.1, several other IPv4 provisioning protocols have been suggested. These protocols MAY be implemented. These alternatives include:


o DHCPv4 over DHCPv6: [RFC7341] describes implementing DHCPv4 messages over an IPv6-only service provider's network. This enables leasing of IPv4 addresses and makes DHCPv4 options available to the DHCPv4-over-DHCPv6 client. An lwB4 MAY implement [RFC7341] and [Dyn-Shared-v4Alloc] to retrieve a shared IPv4 address with a set of ports.

o DHCPv4 over DHCPv6:[RFC7341]描述了通过仅限IPv6的服务提供商的网络实现DHCPv4消息。这允许租用IPv4地址,并使DHCPv4选项可用于DHCPv4-over-DHCPv6客户端。lwB4可以实现[RFC7341]和[Dyn-Shared-v4Alloc]来检索具有一组端口的共享IPv4地址。

o PCP [RFC6887]: an lwB4 MAY use [PCP-PORT_SET] to retrieve a restricted IPv4 address and a set of ports.

o PCP[RFC6887]:lwB4可以使用[PCP-PORT_SET]检索受限制的IPv4地址和一组端口。

In a Lightweight 4over6 domain, the binding information MUST be synchronized across the lwB4s, the lwAFTRs, and the provisioning server.


To prevent interworking complexity, it is RECOMMENDED that an operator use a single provisioning mechanism / protocol for their implementation. In the event that more than one provisioning mechanism / protocol needs to be used (for example, during a migration to a new provisioning mechanism), the operator SHOULD ensure that each provisioning mechanism has a discrete set of resources (e.g., IPv4 address/PSID pools, as well as lwAFTR tunnel addresses and binding tables).


8. ICMP Processing
8. ICMP处理

For both the lwAFTR and the lwB4, ICMPv6 MUST be handled as described in [RFC2473].


ICMPv4 does not work in an address-sharing environment without special handling [RFC6269]. Due to the port-set style of address sharing, Lightweight 4over6 requires specific ICMP message handling not required by DS-Lite.

ICMPv4在没有特殊处理的地址共享环境中无法工作[RFC6269]。由于地址共享的端口集样式,轻量级4over6需要DS Lite不需要的特定ICMP消息处理。

8.1. ICMPv4 Processing by the lwAFTR
8.1. lwAFTR的ICMPv4处理

For inbound ICMP messages, the following behavior SHOULD be implemented by the lwAFTR to provide ICMP error handling and basic remote IPv4 service diagnostics for a port-restricted CPE:


1. Check the ICMP Type field.

1. 检查ICMP类型字段。

2. If the ICMP Type field is set to 0 or 8 (echo reply or request), then the lwAFTR MUST take the value of the ICMP Identifier field as the source port and use this value to look up the binding table for an encapsulation destination. If a match is found, the lwAFTR forwards the ICMP packet to the IPv6 address stored in the entry; otherwise, it MUST discard the packet.

2. 如果ICMP类型字段设置为0或8(回显回复或请求),则lwAFTR必须将ICMP标识符字段的值作为源端口,并使用此值查找封装目标的绑定表。如果找到匹配项,lwAFTR将ICMP数据包转发到条目中存储的IPv6地址;否则,它必须丢弃数据包。

3. If the ICMP Type field is set to any other value, then the lwAFTR MUST use the method described in REQ-3 of [RFC5508] to locate the source port within the transport-layer header in the ICMP packet's data field. The destination IPv4 address and source port extracted from the ICMP packet are then used to make a lookup in the binding table. If a match is found, it MUST forward the ICMP reply packet to the IPv6 address stored in the entry; otherwise, it MUST discard the packet.

3. 如果ICMP类型字段设置为任何其他值,则lwAFTR必须使用[RFC5508]的REQ-3中所述的方法在ICMP数据包的数据字段中的传输层报头内定位源端口。然后使用从ICMP数据包提取的目标IPv4地址和源端口在绑定表中进行查找。如果找到匹配项,则必须将ICMP应答数据包转发到条目中存储的IPv6地址;否则,它必须丢弃数据包。

Otherwise, the lwAFTR MUST discard all inbound ICMPv4 messages.


The ICMP policy SHOULD be configurable.


8.2. ICMPv4 Processing by the lwB4
8.2. lwB4对ICMPv4的处理

The lwB4 MUST implement the requirements defined in [RFC5508] for ICMP forwarding. For ICMP echo request packets originating from the private IPv4 network, the lwB4 SHOULD implement the method described in [RFC6346] and use an available port from its port set as the ICMP identifier.


9. Security Considerations
9. 安全考虑

As the port space for a subscriber shrinks due to address sharing, the randomness for the port numbers of the subscriber is decreased significantly. This means that it is much easier for an attacker to guess the port number used, which could result in attacks ranging from throughput reduction to broken connections or data corruption.


The port set for a subscriber can be a set of contiguous ports or non-contiguous ports. Contiguous port sets do not reduce this threat. However, with non-contiguous port sets (which may be generated in a pseudorandom way [RFC6431]), the randomness of the


port number is improved, provided that the attacker is outside the Lightweight 4over6 domain and hence does not know the port-set generation algorithm.


The lwAFTR MUST rate-limit ICMPv6 error messages (see Section 5.1) to defend against DoS attacks generated by an abuse user.


More considerations about IP address sharing are discussed in Section 13 of [RFC6269], which is applicable to this solution.


This document describes a number of different protocols that may be used for the provisioning of lw4o6. In each case, the security considerations relevant to the provisioning protocol are also relevant to the provisioning of lw4o6 using that protocol. lw4o6 does not add any other security considerations specific to these provisioning protocols.


10. References
10. 工具书类
10.1. Normative References
10.1. 规范性引用文件

[RFC1918] Rekhter, Y., Moskowitz, B., Karrenberg, D., de Groot, G., and E. Lear, "Address Allocation for Private Internets", BCP 5, RFC 1918, DOI 10.17487/RFC1918, February 1996, <>.

[RFC1918]Rekhter,Y.,Moskowitz,B.,Karrenberg,D.,de Groot,G.,和E.Lear,“私人互联网地址分配”,BCP 5,RFC 1918,DOI 10.17487/RFC1918,1996年2月<>.

[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, <>.

[RFC2119]Bradner,S.,“RFC中用于表示需求水平的关键词”,BCP 14,RFC 2119,DOI 10.17487/RFC2119,1997年3月<>.

[RFC2473] Conta, A. and S. Deering, "Generic Packet Tunneling in IPv6 Specification", RFC 2473, DOI 10.17487/RFC2473, December 1998, <>.

[RFC2473]Conta,A.和S.Deering,“IPv6规范中的通用数据包隧道”,RFC 2473,DOI 10.17487/RFC2473,1998年12月<>.

[RFC4787] Audet, F., Ed., and C. Jennings, "Network Address Translation (NAT) Behavioral Requirements for Unicast UDP", BCP 127, RFC 4787, DOI 10.17487/RFC4787, January 2007, <>.

[RFC4787]Audet,F.,Ed.,和C.Jennings,“单播UDP的网络地址转换(NAT)行为要求”,BCP 127,RFC 4787,DOI 10.17487/RFC4787,2007年1月<>.

[RFC5382] Guha, S., Ed., Biswas, K., Ford, B., Sivakumar, S., and P. Srisuresh, "NAT Behavioral Requirements for TCP", BCP 142, RFC 5382, DOI 10.17487/RFC5382, October 2008, <>.

[RFC5382]Guha,S.,Ed.,Biswas,K.,Ford,B.,Sivakumar,S.,和P.Srisuresh,“TCP的NAT行为要求”,BCP 142,RFC 5382,DOI 10.17487/RFC5382,2008年10月<>.

[RFC5508] Srisuresh, P., Ford, B., Sivakumar, S., and S. Guha, "NAT Behavioral Requirements for ICMP", BCP 148, RFC 5508, DOI 10.17487/RFC5508, April 2009, <>.

[RFC5508]Srisuresh,P.,Ford,B.,Sivakumar,S.,和S.Guha,“ICMP的NAT行为要求”,BCP 148,RFC 5508,DOI 10.17487/RFC5508,2009年4月<>.

[RFC5597] Denis-Courmont, R., "Network Address Translation (NAT) Behavioral Requirements for the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol", BCP 150, RFC 5597, DOI 10.17487/RFC5597, September 2009, <>.

[RFC5597]Denis Courmont,R.,“数据报拥塞控制协议的网络地址转换(NAT)行为要求”,BCP 150,RFC 5597,DOI 10.17487/RFC5597,2009年9月<>.

[RFC6333] Durand, A., Droms, R., Woodyatt, J., and Y. Lee, "Dual-Stack Lite Broadband Deployments Following IPv4 Exhaustion", RFC 6333, DOI 10.17487/RFC6333, August 2011, <>.

[RFC6333]Durand,A.,Droms,R.,Woodyatt,J.,和Y.Lee,“IPv4耗尽后的双栈Lite宽带部署”,RFC 6333,DOI 10.17487/RFC6333,2011年8月<>.

[RFC7598] Mrugalski, T., Troan, O., Farrer, I., Perreault, S., Dec, W., Bao, C., Yeh, L., and X. Deng, "DHCPv6 Options for Configuration of Softwire Address and Port-Mapped Clients", RFC 7598, DOI 10.17487/RFC7598, July 2015, <>.

[RFC7598]Mrugalski,T.,Troan,O.,Farrer,I.,Perreault,S.,Dec,W.,Bao,C.,Yeh,L.,和X.Deng,“用于配置软线地址和端口映射客户端的DHCPv6选项”,RFC 7598,DOI 10.17487/RFC7598,2015年7月<>.

10.2. Informative References
10.2. 资料性引用

[B4-Trans-DSLite] Cui, Y., Sun, Q., Boucadair, M., Tsou, T., Lee, Y., and I. Farrer, "Lightweight 4over6: An Extension to the DS-Lite Architecture", Work in Progress, draft-cui-softwire-b4-translated-ds-lite-11, February 2013.

[B4 Trans-DSLite]崔,Y.,孙,Q.,布卡代尔,M.,邹,T.,李,Y.,和I.法勒,“轻量级4over6:DS-Lite架构的扩展”,正在进行的工作,草稿-Cui-softwire-B4-translated-DS-Lite-112013年2月。

[DSLite-LW-Ext] Deng, X., Boucadair, M., and C. Zhou, "NAT offload extension to Dual-Stack lite", Work in Progress, draft-zhou-softwire-b4-nat-04, October 2011.

[DSLite LW Ext]Deng,X.,Boucadair,M.,和C.Zhou,“NAT卸载扩展到双堆栈lite”,正在进行的工作,草稿-Zhou-softwire-b4-NAT-042011年10月。

[Dyn-Shared-v4Alloc] Cui, Y., Sun, Q., Farrer, I., Lee, Y., Sun, Q., and M. Boucadair, "Dynamic Allocation of Shared IPv4 Addresses", Work in Progress, draft-ietf-dhc-dynamic-shared-v4allocation-09, May 2015.


[PCP-PORT_SET] Sun, Q., Boucadair, M., Sivakumar, S., Zhou, C., Tsou, T., and S. Perreault, "Port Control Protocol (PCP) Extension for Port Set Allocation", Work in Progress, draft-ietf-pcp-port-set-09, May 2015.


[RFC2827] Ferguson, P. and D. Senie, "Network Ingress Filtering: Defeating Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source Address Spoofing", BCP 38, RFC 2827, DOI 10.17487/RFC2827, May 2000, <>.

[RFC2827]Ferguson,P.和D.Senie,“网络入口过滤:击败利用IP源地址欺骗的拒绝服务攻击”,BCP 38,RFC 2827,DOI 10.17487/RFC2827,2000年5月<>.

[RFC2983] Black, D., "Differentiated Services and Tunnels", RFC 2983, DOI 10.17487/RFC2983, October 2000, <>.

[RFC2983]Black,D.,“差异化服务和隧道”,RFC 2983,DOI 10.17487/RFC2983,2000年10月<>.

[RFC3022] Srisuresh, P. and K. Egevang, "Traditional IP Network Address Translator (Traditional NAT)", RFC 3022, DOI 10.17487/RFC3022, January 2001, <>.

[RFC3022]Srisuresh,P.和K.Egevang,“传统IP网络地址转换器(传统NAT)”,RFC 3022,DOI 10.17487/RFC3022,2001年1月<>.

[RFC6269] Ford, M., Ed., Boucadair, M., Durand, A., Levis, P., and P. Roberts, "Issues with IP Address Sharing", RFC 6269, DOI 10.17487/RFC6269, June 2011, <>.

[RFC6269]福特,M.,Ed.,Boucadair,M.,Durand,A.,Levis,P.,和P.Roberts,“IP地址共享问题”,RFC 6269,DOI 10.17487/RFC62692011年6月<>.

[RFC6346] Bush, R., Ed., "The Address plus Port (A+P) Approach to the IPv4 Address Shortage", RFC 6346, DOI 10.17487/RFC6346, August 2011, <>.

[RFC6346]Bush,R.,Ed.,“IPv4地址短缺的地址加端口(A+P)方法”,RFC 6346,DOI 10.17487/RFC6346,2011年8月<>.

[RFC6431] Boucadair, M., Levis, P., Bajko, G., Savolainen, T., and T. Tsou, "Huawei Port Range Configuration Options for PPP IP Control Protocol (IPCP)", RFC 6431, DOI 10.17487/RFC6431, November 2011, <>.

[RFC6431]Boucadair,M.,Levis,P.,Bajko,G.,Savolainen,T.,和T.Tsou,“华为PPP IP控制协议(IPCP)的端口范围配置选项”,RFC 6431,DOI 10.17487/RFC6431,2011年11月<>.

[RFC6864] Touch, J., "Updated Specification of the IPv4 ID Field", RFC 6864, DOI 10.17487/RFC6864, February 2013, <>.

[RFC6864]Touch,J.,“IPv4 ID字段的更新规范”,RFC 6864,DOI 10.17487/RFC6864,2013年2月<>.

[RFC6887] Wing, D., Ed., Cheshire, S., Boucadair, M., Penno, R., and P. Selkirk, "Port Control Protocol (PCP)", RFC 6887, DOI 10.17487/RFC6887, April 2013, <>.

[RFC6887]Wing,D.,Ed.,Cheshire,S.,Boucadair,M.,Penno,R.,和P.Selkirk,“港口控制协议(PCP)”,RFC 6887,DOI 10.17487/RFC6887,2013年4月<>.

[RFC7040] Cui, Y., Wu, J., Wu, P., Vautrin, O., and Y. Lee, "Public IPv4-over-IPv6 Access Network", RFC 7040, DOI 10.17487/RFC7040, November 2013, <>.

[RFC7040]Cui,Y.,Wu,J.,Wu,P.,Vautrin,O.,和Y.Lee,“公共IPv4-over-IPv6接入网络”,RFC 7040,DOI 10.17487/RFC70402013年11月<>.

[RFC7341] Sun, Q., Cui, Y., Siodelski, M., Krishnan, S., and I. Farrer, "DHCPv4-over-DHCPv6 (DHCP 4o6) Transport", RFC 7341, DOI 10.17487/RFC7341, August 2014, <>.

[RFC7341]Sun,Q.,Cui,Y.,Siodelski,M.,Krishnan,S.,和I.Farrer,“DHCPv4-over-DHCPv6(DHCP 4o6)传输”,RFC 7341,DOI 10.17487/RFC73412014年8月<>.

[RFC7597] Troan, O., Ed., Dec, W., Li, X., Bao, C., Matsushima, S., Murakami, T., and T. Taylor, Ed., "Mapping of Address and Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E)", RFC 7597, DOI 10.17487/RFC7597, July 2015, <>.

[RFC7597]Troan,O.,Ed.,Dec,W.,Li,X.,Bao,C.,Matsushima,S.,Murakami,T.,和T.Taylor,Ed.,“地址和端口的封装映射(MAP-E)”,RFC 7597,DOI 10.17487/RFC7597,2015年7月<>.

[Stateless-DS-Lite] Penno, R., Durand, A., Clauberg, A., and L. Hoffmann, "Stateless DS-Lite", Work in Progress, draft-penno-softwire-sdnat-02, March 2012.


[TR069] Broadband Forum TR-069, "CPE WAN Management Protocol", Amendment 5, CWMP Version: 1.4, November 2013, <>.

[TR069]宽带论坛TR-069,“CPE WAN管理协议”,修正案5,CWMP版本:1.42013年11月<>.

[Unified-v4-in-v6] Boucadair, M., Farrer, I., Perreault, S., Ed., and S. Sivakumar, Ed., "Unified IPv4-in-IPv6 Softwire CPE", Work in Progress, draft-ietf-softwire-unified-cpe-01, May 2013.




The authors would like to thank Ole Troan, Ralph Droms, and Suresh Krishnan for their comments and feedback.

作者要感谢Ole Troan、Ralph Droms和Suresh Krishnan的评论和反馈。

This document is a merge of three documents: [B4-Trans-DSLite], [DSLite-LW-Ext], and [Stateless-DS-Lite].

本文档是三个文档的合并:[B4 Trans DSLite]、[DSLite LW Ext]和[Stateless DS Lite]。



The following individuals contributed to this effort:


Jianping Wu Tsinghua University Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University Beijing 100084 China Phone: +86-10-62785983 Email:


Peng Wu Tsinghua University Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University Beijing 100084 China Phone: +86-10-62785822 Email:


Qi Sun Tsinghua University Beijing 100084 China Phone: +86-10-62785822 Email:


Chongfeng Xie China Telecom Room 708, No. 118, Xizhimennei Street Beijing 100035 China Phone: +86-10-58552116 Email:


Xiaohong Deng The University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Email:


Cathy Zhou Huawei Technologies Section B, Huawei Industrial Base, Bantian Longgang Shenzhen 518129 China Email:

中国深圳龙岗坂田华为工业基地华为技术B部Cathy Zhou邮编:518129电子邮件

Alain Durand Juniper Networks 1194 North Mathilda Avenue Sunnyvale, CA 94089-1206 United States Email:

Alain Durand Juniper Networks 1194 North Mathilda Avenue Sunnyvale,CA 94089-1206美国电子邮件

Reinaldo Penno Cisco Systems, Inc. 170 West Tasman Drive San Jose, CA 95134 United States Email:

Reinaldo Penno Cisco Systems,Inc.美国加利福尼亚州圣何塞市西塔斯曼大道170号,邮编95134电子邮件

Axel Clauberg Deutsche Telekom AG CTO-ATI Landgrabenweg 151 Bonn 53227 Germany Email:

Axel Clauberg德国电信公司CTO-ATI Landgrabenweg 151波恩53227德国电子邮件:Axel。

Lionel Hoffmann Bouygues Telecom TECHNOPOLE 13/15 Avenue du Marechal Juin Meudon 92360 France Email:


Maoke Chen (a.k.a. Noriyuki Arai) BBIX, Inc. Tokyo Shiodome Building, Higashi-Shimbashi 1-9-1 Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-7310 Japan Email:

Maoke Chen(又称Arai Noriyuki)BBIX,Inc.东京Shiodome大厦,东新桥1-9-1 Minato ku,东京105-7310日本电子邮件

Authors' Addresses


Yong Cui Tsinghua University Beijing 100084 China


   Phone: +86-10-62603059
   Phone: +86-10-62603059

Qiong Sun China Telecom Room 708, No. 118, Xizhimennei Street Beijing 100035 China


   Phone: +86-10-58552936
   Phone: +86-10-58552936

Mohamed Boucadair France Telecom Rennes 35000 France



Tina Tsou Huawei Technologies 2330 Central Expressway Santa Clara, CA 95050 United States

Tina Tsou华为技术公司美国加利福尼亚州圣克拉拉中央高速公路2330号,邮编95050

   Phone: +1-408-330-4424
   Phone: +1-408-330-4424

Yiu L. Lee Comcast One Comcast Center Philadelphia, PA 19103 United States

Yiu L.Lee Comcast美国宾夕法尼亚州费城Comcast中心1号,邮编:19103


Ian Farrer Deutsche Telekom AG CTO-ATI, Landgrabenweg 151 Bonn, NRW 53227 Germany

Ian Farrer Deutsche Telekom AG CTO-ATI,德国新南威尔士州波恩市兰德格拉本韦151号,邮编53227