Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                         A. Newton
Request for Comments: 7482                                          ARIN
Category: Standards Track                                  S. Hollenbeck
ISSN: 2070-1721                                            Verisign Labs
                                                              March 2015
        
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                         A. Newton
Request for Comments: 7482                                          ARIN
Category: Standards Track                                  S. Hollenbeck
ISSN: 2070-1721                                            Verisign Labs
                                                              March 2015
        

Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) Query Format

注册数据访问协议(RDAP)查询格式

Abstract

摘要

This document describes uniform patterns to construct HTTP URLs that may be used to retrieve registration information from registries (including both Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) and Domain Name Registries (DNRs)) using "RESTful" web access patterns. These uniform patterns define the query syntax for the Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP).

本文档描述了使用“RESTful”web访问模式构建HTTP URL的统一模式,这些URL可用于从注册中心(包括区域Internet注册中心(RIR)和域名注册中心(DNR))检索注册信息。这些统一模式定义了注册数据访问协议(RDAP)的查询语法。

Status of This Memo

关于下段备忘

This is an Internet Standards Track document.

这是一份互联网标准跟踪文件。

This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has received public review and has been approved for publication by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.

本文件是互联网工程任务组(IETF)的产品。它代表了IETF社区的共识。它已经接受了公众审查,并已被互联网工程指导小组(IESG)批准出版。有关互联网标准的更多信息,请参见RFC 5741第2节。

Information about the current status of this document, any errata, and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7482.

有关本文件当前状态、任何勘误表以及如何提供反馈的信息,请访问http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7482.

Copyright Notice

版权公告

Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.

版权所有(c)2015 IETF信托基金和确定为文件作者的人员。版权所有。

This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.

本文件受BCP 78和IETF信托有关IETF文件的法律规定的约束(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info)自本文件出版之日起生效。请仔细阅读这些文件,因为它们描述了您对本文件的权利和限制。从本文件中提取的代码组件必须包括信托法律条款第4.e节中所述的简化BSD许可证文本,并提供简化BSD许可证中所述的无担保。

Table of Contents

目录

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  Acronyms and Abbreviations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Path Segment Specification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Lookup Path Segment Specification . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.1.1.  IP Network Path Segment Specification . . . . . . . .   6
       3.1.2.  Autonomous System Path Segment Specification  . . . .   7
       3.1.3.  Domain Path Segment Specification . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.1.4.  Nameserver Path Segment Specification . . . . . . . .   8
       3.1.5.  Entity Path Segment Specification . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.1.6.  Help Path Segment Specification . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.2.  Search Path Segment Specification . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.2.1.  Domain Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       3.2.2.  Nameserver Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       3.2.3.  Entity Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   4.  Query Processing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.1.  Partial String Searching  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.2.  Associated Records  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   5.  Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   6.  Internationalization Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     6.1.  Character Encoding Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
        
   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  Acronyms and Abbreviations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Path Segment Specification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Lookup Path Segment Specification . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.1.1.  IP Network Path Segment Specification . . . . . . . .   6
       3.1.2.  Autonomous System Path Segment Specification  . . . .   7
       3.1.3.  Domain Path Segment Specification . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.1.4.  Nameserver Path Segment Specification . . . . . . . .   8
       3.1.5.  Entity Path Segment Specification . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.1.6.  Help Path Segment Specification . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.2.  Search Path Segment Specification . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.2.1.  Domain Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       3.2.2.  Nameserver Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       3.2.3.  Entity Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   4.  Query Processing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.1.  Partial String Searching  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.2.  Associated Records  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   5.  Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   6.  Internationalization Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     6.1.  Character Encoding Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
        
1. Introduction
1. 介绍

This document describes a specification for querying registration data using a RESTful web service and uniform query patterns. The service is implemented using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) [RFC7230] and the conventions described in [RFC7480]. These uniform patterns define the query syntax for the Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP).

本文档描述了使用RESTfulWeb服务和统一查询模式查询注册数据的规范。该服务使用超文本传输协议(HTTP)[RFC7230]和[RFC7480]中描述的约定实现。这些统一模式定义了注册数据访问协议(RDAP)的查询语法。

The protocol described in this specification is intended to address deficiencies with the WHOIS protocol [RFC3912] that have been identified over time, including:

本规范中描述的协议旨在解决WHOIS协议[RFC3912]的缺陷,这些缺陷随着时间的推移而被识别,包括:

o lack of standardized command structures;

o 缺乏标准化的指挥结构;

o lack of standardized output and error structures;

o 缺乏标准化的输出和错误结构;

o lack of support for internationalization and localization; and

o 缺乏对国际化和本地化的支持;和

o lack of support for user identification, authentication, and access control.

o 缺乏对用户标识、身份验证和访问控制的支持。

The patterns described in this document purposefully do not encompass all of the methods employed in the WHOIS and other RESTful web services used by the RIRs and DNRs. The intent of the patterns described here are to enable queries of:

本文档中描述的模式有意地不包括WHOIS中使用的所有方法以及RIRs和DNRs使用的其他RESTfulWeb服务。这里描述的模式旨在支持以下查询:

o networks by IP address;

o 按IP地址划分的网络;

o Autonomous System (AS) numbers by number;

o 自治系统(AS)按编号编号;

o reverse DNS metadata by domain;

o 按域反向DNS元数据;

o nameservers by name;

o 按名称命名的服务器;

o registrars by name; and

o 登记员姓名;和

o entities (such as contacts) by identifier.

o 按标识符列出的实体(如联系人)。

Server implementations are free to support only a subset of these features depending on local requirements. Servers MUST return an HTTP 501 (Not Implemented) [RFC7231] response to inform clients of unsupported query types. It is also envisioned that each registry will continue to maintain WHOIS and/or other RESTful web services specific to their needs and those of their constituencies, and the information retrieved through the patterns described here may reference such services.

根据本地需求,服务器实现只支持这些功能的一个子集。服务器必须返回HTTP 501(未实现)[RFC7231]响应,以通知客户端不支持的查询类型。还可以设想,每个注册中心将继续维护WHOIS和/或其他RESTful web服务,以满足其需求及其用户群的需求,通过本文描述的模式检索的信息可能会引用这些服务。

Likewise, future IETF standards may add additional patterns for additional query types. A simple pattern namespacing scheme is described in Section 5 to accommodate custom extensions that will not interfere with the patterns defined in this document or patterns defined in future IETF standards.

同样,未来的IETF标准可能会为额外的查询类型添加额外的模式。第5节描述了一个简单的模式名称空间方案,以适应不会干扰本文档中定义的模式或未来IETF标准中定义的模式的自定义扩展。

WHOIS services, in general, are read-only services. Therefore, URL [RFC3986] patterns specified in this document are only applicable to the HTTP [RFC7231] GET and HEAD methods.

WHOIS服务通常是只读服务。因此,本文档中指定的URL[RFC3986]模式仅适用于HTTP[RFC7231]GET和HEAD方法。

This document does not describe the results or entities returned from issuing the described URLs with an HTTP GET. The specification of these entities is described in [RFC7483].

本文档不描述通过HTTP GET发布所述URL返回的结果或实体。[RFC7483]中描述了这些实体的规范。

Additionally, resource management, provisioning, and update functions are out of scope for this document. Registries have various and divergent methods covering these functions, and it is unlikely a uniform approach is needed for interoperability.

此外,资源管理、资源调配和更新功能超出了本文档的范围。注册中心有各种不同的方法来覆盖这些功能,互操作性不太可能需要统一的方法。

HTTP contains mechanisms for servers to authenticate clients and for clients to authenticate servers (from which authorization schemes may be built), so such mechanisms are not described in this document. Policy, provisioning, and processing of authentication and authorization are out of scope for this document as deployments will have to make choices based on local criteria. Supported authentication mechanisms are described in [RFC7481].

HTTP包含用于服务器对客户端进行身份验证和用于客户端对服务器进行身份验证的机制(可以从中构建授权方案),因此本文档中不描述此类机制。策略、资源调配以及身份验证和授权的处理超出了本文档的范围,因为部署必须根据本地标准进行选择。[RFC7481]中描述了支持的身份验证机制。

2. Conventions Used in This Document
2. 本文件中使用的公约

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

本文件中的关键词“必须”、“不得”、“必需”、“应”、“不应”、“应”、“不应”、“建议”、“可”和“可选”应按照[RFC2119]中所述进行解释。

2.1. Acronyms and Abbreviations
2.1. 缩略语

IDN: Internationalized Domain Name

IDN:国际化域名

IDNA: Internationalized Domain Names in Applications, a protocol for the handling of IDNs.

IDNA:应用程序中的国际化域名,处理IDN的协议。

DNR: Domain Name Registry

域名注册

NFC: Unicode Normalization Form C [Unicode-UAX15]

NFC:Unicode规范化表单C[Unicode-UAX15]

NFKC: Unicode Normalization Form KC [Unicode-UAX15]

NFKC:Unicode规范化表单KC[Unicode-UAX15]

RDAP: Registration Data Access Protocol

注册数据访问协议

REST: Representational State Transfer. The term was first described in a doctoral dissertation [REST].

REST:代表性状态转移。这个术语最初是在一篇博士论文[REST]中描述的。

RESTful: An adjective that describes a service using HTTP and the principles of REST.

RESTful:描述使用HTTP和REST原则的服务的形容词。

RIR: Regional Internet Registry

RIR:区域互联网注册处

3. Path Segment Specification
3. 路径段规范

The base URLs used to construct RDAP queries are maintained in an IANA registry described in [RFC7484]. Queries are formed by retrieving an appropriate base URL from the registry and appending a path segment specified in either Sections 3.1 or 3.2. Generally, a registry or other service provider will provide a base URL that identifies the protocol, host, and port, and this will be used as a base URL that the complete URL is resolved against, as per Section 5

用于构造RDAP查询的基本URL保存在[RFC7484]中描述的IANA注册表中。查询是通过从注册表中检索适当的基本URL并附加第3.1节或第3.2节中指定的路径段形成的。通常,注册中心或其他服务提供商将提供一个标识协议、主机和端口的基本URL,并根据第5节将其用作完整URL解析所依据的基本URL

of RFC 3986 [RFC3986]. For example, if the base URL is "https://example.com/rdap/", all RDAP query URLs will begin with "https://example.com/rdap/".

RFC 3986[RFC3986]的标准。例如,如果基本URL为“https://example.com/rdap/,所有RDAP查询URL将以开头https://example.com/rdap/".

The bootstrap registry does not contain information for query objects that are not part of a global namespace, including entities and help. A base URL for an associated object is required to construct a complete query.

引导注册表不包含不属于全局命名空间的查询对象的信息,包括实体和帮助。构造完整查询需要关联对象的基本URL。

For entities, a base URL is retrieved for the service (domain, address, etc.) associated with a given entity. The query URL is constructed by concatenating the base URL to the entity path segment specified in either Sections 3.1.5 or 3.2.3.

对于实体,检索与给定实体关联的服务(域、地址等)的基本URL。通过将基本URL连接到第3.1.5节或第3.2.3节中指定的实体路径段来构造查询URL。

For help, a base URL is retrieved for any service (domain, address, etc.) for which additional information is required. The query URL is constructed by concatenating the base URL to the help path segment specified in Section 3.1.6.

为了获得帮助,将检索任何需要附加信息的服务(域、地址等)的基本URL。通过将基本URL连接到第3.1.6节中指定的帮助路径段来构造查询URL。

3.1. Lookup Path Segment Specification
3.1. 查找路径段规范

A simple lookup to determine if an object exists (or not) without returning RDAP-encoded results can be performed using the HTTP HEAD method as described in Section 4.1 of [RFC7480].

可以使用[RFC7480]第4.1节所述的HTTP HEAD方法执行简单的查找,以确定对象是否存在(或不存在),而不返回RDAP编码的结果。

The resource type path segments for exact match lookup are:

用于精确匹配查找的资源类型路径段包括:

o 'ip': Used to identify IP networks and associated data referenced using either an IPv4 or IPv6 address.

o “ip”:用于标识ip网络和使用IPv4或IPv6地址引用的关联数据。

o 'autnum': Used to identify Autonomous System number registrations and associated data referenced using an asplain Autonomous System number.

o “autnum”:用于标识自治系统号注册和使用asplain自治系统号引用的相关数据。

o 'domain': Used to identify reverse DNS (RIR) or domain name (DNR) information and associated data referenced using a fully qualified domain name.

o “域”:用于标识反向DNS(RIR)或域名(DNR)信息以及使用完全限定域名引用的相关数据。

o 'nameserver': Used to identify a nameserver information query using a host name.

o “名称服务器”:用于标识使用主机名的名称服务器信息查询。

o 'entity': Used to identify an entity information query using a string identifier.

o “实体”:用于使用字符串标识符标识实体信息查询。

3.1.1. IP Network Path Segment Specification
3.1.1. IP网络路径段规范
   Syntax: ip/<IP address> or ip/<CIDR prefix>/<CIDR length>
        
   Syntax: ip/<IP address> or ip/<CIDR prefix>/<CIDR length>
        

Queries for information about IP networks are of the form /ip/XXX/... or /ip/XXX/YY/... where the path segment following 'ip' is either an IPv4 dotted decimal or IPv6 [RFC5952] address (i.e., XXX) or an IPv4 or IPv6 Classless Inter-domain Routing (CIDR) [RFC4632] notation address block (i.e., XXX/YY). Semantically, the simpler form using the address can be thought of as a CIDR block with a bitmask length of 32 for IPv4 and a bitmask length of 128 for IPv6. A given specific address or CIDR may fall within multiple IP networks in a hierarchy of networks; therefore, this query targets the "most-specific" or smallest IP network that completely encompasses it in a hierarchy of IP networks.

有关IP网络信息的查询格式为/IP/XXX/。。。或/ip/XXX/YY/。。。其中,“ip”后面的路径段是IPv4点十进制或IPv6[RFC5952]地址(即XXX)或IPv4或IPv6无类域间路由(CIDR)[RFC4632]表示法地址块(即XXX/YY)。从语义上讲,使用地址的更简单形式可以被认为是一个CIDR块,对于IPv4,位掩码长度为32,对于IPv6,位掩码长度为128。给定的特定地址或CIDR可能位于网络层次结构中的多个IP网络中;因此,此查询以“最特定”或最小的IP网络为目标,该网络在IP网络的层次结构中完全包含它。

The IPv4 and IPv6 address formats supported in this query are described in Section 3.2.2 of RFC 3986 [RFC3986] as IPv4address and IPv6address ABNF definitions. Any valid IPv6 text address format [RFC4291] can be used. This includes IPv6 addresses written using with or without compressed zeros and IPv6 addresses containing embedded IPv4 addresses. The rules to write a text representation of an IPv6 address [RFC5952] are RECOMMENDED. However, the zone_id [RFC4007] is not appropriate in this context; therefore, the corresponding syntax extension in RFC 6874 [RFC6874] MUST NOT be used, and servers are to ignore it if possible.

RFC 3986[RFC3986]第3.2.2节将此查询中支持的IPv4和IPv6地址格式描述为IPv4address和IPv6address ABNF定义。可以使用任何有效的IPv6文本地址格式[RFC4291]。这包括使用或不使用压缩零写入的IPv6地址,以及包含嵌入式IPv4地址的IPv6地址。建议使用规则写入IPv6地址的文本表示形式[RFC5952]。然而,区域标识[RFC4007]在这种情况下并不合适;因此,RFC 6874[RFC6874]中相应的语法扩展不能使用,如果可能,服务器将忽略它。

For example, the following URL would be used to find information for the most specific network containing 192.0.2.0:

例如,以下URL将用于查找包含192.0.2.0的最特定网络的信息:

   https://example.com/rdap/ip/192.0.2.0
        
   https://example.com/rdap/ip/192.0.2.0
        

The following URL would be used to find information for the most specific network containing 192.0.2.0/24:

以下URL将用于查找包含192.0.2.0/24的最特定网络的信息:

   https://example.com/rdap/ip/192.0.2.0/24
        
   https://example.com/rdap/ip/192.0.2.0/24
        

The following URL would be used to find information for the most specific network containing 2001:db8::0:

以下URL将用于查找包含2001:db8::0的最特定网络的信息:

   https://example.com/rdap/ip/2001:db8::0
        
   https://example.com/rdap/ip/2001:db8::0
        
3.1.2. Autonomous System Path Segment Specification
3.1.2. 自治系统路径段规范
   Syntax: autnum/<autonomous system number>
        
   Syntax: autnum/<autonomous system number>
        

Queries for information regarding Autonomous System number registrations are of the form /autnum/XXX/... where XXX is an asplain Autonomous System number [RFC5396]. In some registries, registration of Autonomous System numbers is done on an individual number basis, while other registries may register blocks of Autonomous System numbers. The semantics of this query are such that if a number falls within a range of registered blocks, the target of the query is the block registration and that individual number registrations are considered a block of numbers with a size of 1.

有关自主系统编号注册信息的查询采用/autnum/XXX/…形式。。。其中XXX是阿斯普兰自治系统编号[RFC5396]。在一些注册中心,自主系统编号的注册是在单个编号的基础上进行的,而其他注册中心可以注册自主系统编号块。此查询的语义是这样的:如果一个数字位于已注册块的范围内,则查询的目标是块注册,并且单个数字注册被视为大小为1的数字块。

For example, the following URL would be used to find information describing Autonomous System number 12 (a number within a range of registered blocks):

例如,以下URL将用于查找描述自治系统编号12(注册块范围内的编号)的信息:

   https://example.com/rdap/autnum/12
        
   https://example.com/rdap/autnum/12
        

The following URL would be used to find information describing 4-byte Autonomous System number 65538:

以下URL将用于查找描述4字节自治系统编号65538的信息:

   https://example.com/rdap/autnum/65538
        
   https://example.com/rdap/autnum/65538
        
3.1.3. Domain Path Segment Specification
3.1.3. 域路径段规范
   Syntax: domain/<domain name>
        
   Syntax: domain/<domain name>
        

Queries for domain information are of the form /domain/XXXX/..., where XXXX is a fully qualified (relative to the root) domain name (as specified in [RFC0952] and [RFC1123]) in either the in-addr.arpa or ip6.arpa zones (for RIRs) or a fully qualified domain name in a zone administered by the server operator (for DNRs). Internationalized Domain Names (IDNs) represented in either A-label or U-label format [RFC5890] are also valid domain names. See Section 6.1 for information on character encoding for the U-label format.

域信息查询的形式为/domain/XXXX/…,其中XXXX是in-addr.arpa或ip6.arpa区域(对于RIR)中的完全限定(相对于根)域名(如[RFC0952]和[RFC1123]中所述),或者是由服务器运营商管理的区域(对于DNR)中的完全限定域名。以A标签或U标签格式[RFC5890]表示的国际化域名(IDN)也是有效的域名。有关U型标签格式的字符编码信息,请参见第6.1节。

IDNs SHOULD NOT be represented as a mixture of A-labels and U-labels; that is, internationalized labels in an IDN SHOULD be either all A-labels or all U-labels. It is possible for an RDAP client to assemble a query string from multiple independent data sources. Such a client might not be able to perform conversions between A-labels and U-labels. An RDAP server that receives a query string with a mixture of A-labels and U-labels MAY convert all the U-labels to A-labels, perform IDNA processing, and proceed with exact-match

IDN不应表示为a标签和U标签的混合物;也就是说,IDN中的国际化标签应该是全部A标签或全部U标签。RDAP客户端可以从多个独立的数据源组合查询字符串。这样的客户端可能无法在a标签和U标签之间执行转换。接收混合了a标签和U标签的查询字符串的RDAP服务器可以将所有U标签转换为a标签,执行IDNA处理,并继续进行精确匹配

lookup. In such cases, the response to be returned to the query source may not match the input from the query source. Alternatively, the server MAY refuse to process the query.

查找。在这种情况下,返回到查询源的响应可能与来自查询源的输入不匹配。或者,服务器可以拒绝处理查询。

The server MAY perform the match using either the A-label or U-label form. Using one consistent form for matching every label is likely to be more reliable.

服务器可以使用A标签或U标签表单执行匹配。使用一个一致的表单匹配每个标签可能更可靠。

The following URL would be used to find information describing the zone serving the network 192.0.2/24:

以下URL将用于查找描述为网络192.0.2/24提供服务的区域的信息:

   https://example.com/rdap/domain/2.0.192.in-addr.arpa
        
   https://example.com/rdap/domain/2.0.192.in-addr.arpa
        

The following URL would be used to find information describing the zone serving the network 2001:db8:1::/48:

以下URL将用于查找描述为网络2001提供服务的区域的信息:db8:1::/48:

   https://example.com/rdap/domain/1.0.0.0.8.b.d.0.1.0.0.2.ip6.arpa
        
   https://example.com/rdap/domain/1.0.0.0.8.b.d.0.1.0.0.2.ip6.arpa
        

The following URL would be used to find information for the blah.example.com domain name:

以下URL将用于查找blah.example.com域名的信息:

   https://example.com/rdap/domain/blah.example.com
        
   https://example.com/rdap/domain/blah.example.com
        

The following URL would be used to find information for the xn--fo-5ja.example IDN:

以下URL将用于查找xn--fo-5ja的信息。示例IDN:

   https://example.com/rdap/domain/xn--fo-5ja.example
        
   https://example.com/rdap/domain/xn--fo-5ja.example
        
3.1.4. Nameserver Path Segment Specification
3.1.4. 名称服务器路径段规范
   Syntax: nameserver/<nameserver name>
        
   Syntax: nameserver/<nameserver name>
        

The <nameserver name> parameter represents a fully qualified host name as specified in [RFC0952] and [RFC1123]. Internationalized names represented in either A-label or U-label format [RFC5890] are also valid nameserver names. IDN processing for nameserver names uses the domain name processing instructions specified in Section 3.1.3. See Section 6.1 for information on character encoding for the U-label format.

<nameservername>参数表示[RFC0952]和[RFC1123]中指定的完全限定主机名。以A-label或U-label格式[RFC5890]表示的国际化名称也是有效的名称服务器名称。名称服务器名称的IDN处理使用第3.1.3节中指定的域名处理说明。有关U型标签格式的字符编码信息,请参见第6.1节。

The following URL would be used to find information for the ns1.example.com nameserver:

以下URL将用于查找ns1.example.com名称服务器的信息:

   https://example.com/rdap/nameserver/ns1.example.com
        
   https://example.com/rdap/nameserver/ns1.example.com
        

The following URL would be used to find information for the ns1.xn--fo-5ja.example nameserver:

以下URL将用于查找ns1.xn--fo-5ja.example名称服务器的信息:

   https://example.com/rdap/nameserver/ns1.xn--fo-5ja.example
        
   https://example.com/rdap/nameserver/ns1.xn--fo-5ja.example
        
3.1.5. Entity Path Segment Specification
3.1.5. 实体路径段规范
   Syntax: entity/<handle>
        
   Syntax: entity/<handle>
        

The <handle> parameter represents an entity (such as a contact, registrant, or registrar) identifier whose syntax is specific to the registration provider. For example, for some DNRs, contact identifiers are specified in [RFC5730] and [RFC5733].

<handle>参数表示一个实体(如联系人、注册人或注册人)标识符,其语法特定于注册提供者。例如,对于某些DNR,[RFC5730]和[RFC5733]中指定了联系人标识符。

The following URL would be used to find information for the entity associated with handle XXXX:

以下URL将用于查找与句柄XXXX关联的实体的信息:

   https://example.com/rdap/entity/XXXX
        
   https://example.com/rdap/entity/XXXX
        
3.1.6. Help Path Segment Specification
3.1.6. 帮助路径段规范

Syntax: help

语法:帮助

The help path segment can be used to request helpful information (command syntax, terms of service, privacy policy, rate-limiting policy, supported authentication methods, supported extensions, technical support contact, etc.) from an RDAP server. The response to "help" should provide basic information that a client needs to successfully use the service. The following URL would be used to return "help" information:

帮助路径段可用于从RDAP服务器请求有用信息(命令语法、服务条款、隐私策略、速率限制策略、支持的身份验证方法、支持的扩展、技术支持联系人等)。对“帮助”的响应应提供客户端成功使用服务所需的基本信息。以下URL将用于返回“帮助”信息:

   https://example.com/rdap/help
        
   https://example.com/rdap/help
        
3.2. Search Path Segment Specification
3.2. 搜索路径段规范

Pattern matching semantics are described in Section 4.1. The resource type path segments for search are:

模式匹配语义在第4.1节中描述。用于搜索的资源类型路径段包括:

o 'domains': Used to identify a domain name information search using a pattern to match a fully qualified domain name.

o “域”:用于标识域名信息搜索,使用模式匹配完全限定的域名。

o 'nameservers': Used to identify a nameserver information search using a pattern to match a host name.

o “名称服务器”:用于标识名称服务器信息搜索,使用模式匹配主机名。

o 'entities': Used to identify an entity information search using a pattern to match a string identifier.

o “实体”:用于标识实体信息搜索,使用模式匹配字符串标识符。

RDAP search path segments are formed using a concatenation of the plural form of the object being searched for and an HTTP query string. The HTTP query string is formed using a concatenation of the question mark character ('?', US-ASCII value 0x003F), the JSON object value associated with the object being searched for, the equal sign character ('=', US-ASCII value 0x003D), and the search pattern. Search pattern query processing is described more fully in Section 4. For the domain, nameserver, and entity objects described in this document, the plural object forms are "domains", "nameservers", and "entities".

RDAP搜索路径段是使用被搜索对象的复数形式和HTTP查询字符串的串联形成的。HTTP查询字符串是使用问号字符(“?”,US-ASCII值0x003F)、与正在搜索的对象相关联的JSON对象值、等号字符(“=”,US-ASCII值0x003D)和搜索模式串联而成的。第4节对搜索模式查询处理进行了更全面的描述。对于本文档中描述的域、名称服务器和实体对象,复数对象形式为“域”、“名称服务器”和“实体”。

Detailed results can be retrieved using the HTTP GET method and the path segments specified here.

可以使用HTTP GET方法和此处指定的路径段检索详细结果。

3.2.1. Domain Search
3.2.1. 域搜索
   Syntax: domains?name=<domain search pattern>
        
   Syntax: domains?name=<domain search pattern>
        
   Syntax: domains?nsLdhName=<domain search pattern>
        
   Syntax: domains?nsLdhName=<domain search pattern>
        
   Syntax: domains?nsIp=<domain search pattern>
        
   Syntax: domains?nsIp=<domain search pattern>
        

Searches for domain information by name are specified using this form:

使用以下表单指定按名称搜索域信息:

domains?name=XXXX

域名?名称=XXXX

XXXX is a search pattern representing a domain name in "letters, digits, hyphen" (LDH) format [RFC5890] in a zone administered by the server operator of a DNR. The following URL would be used to find DNR information for domain names matching the "example*.com" pattern:

XXXX是一种搜索模式,在DNR的服务器操作员管理的区域内,以“字母、数字、连字符”(LDH)格式[RFC5890]表示域名。以下URL将用于查找与“example*.com”模式匹配的域名的DNR信息:

   https://example.com/rdap/domains?name=example*.com
        
   https://example.com/rdap/domains?name=example*.com
        

IDNs in U-label format [RFC5890] can also be used as search patterns (see Section 4). Searches for these names are of the form /domains?name=XXXX, where XXXX is a search pattern representing a domain name in U-label format [RFC5890]. See Section 6.1 for information on character encoding for the U-label format.

U标签格式[RFC5890]的IDN也可用作搜索模式(见第4节)。搜索这些名称的形式为/domains?name=XXXX,其中XXXX是一种搜索模式,表示U标签格式[RFC5890]的域名。有关U型标签格式的字符编码信息,请参见第6.1节。

Searches for domain information by nameserver name are specified using this form:

使用以下表单指定按名称服务器名称搜索域信息:

domains?nsLdhName=YYYY

域?nsLdhName=YYYY

YYYY is a search pattern representing a host name in "letters, digits, hyphen" format [RFC5890] in a zone administered by the server operator of a DNR. The following URL would be used to search for domains delegated to nameservers matching the "ns1.example*.com" pattern:

YYYY是一种搜索模式,在DNR的服务器操作员管理的区域中以“字母、数字、连字符”格式[RFC5890]表示主机名。以下URL将用于搜索委派给与“ns1.example*.com”模式匹配的名称服务器的域:

   https://example.com/rdap/domains?nsLdhName=ns1.example*.com
        
   https://example.com/rdap/domains?nsLdhName=ns1.example*.com
        

Searches for domain information by nameserver IP address are specified using this form:

使用以下表单指定按名称服务器IP地址搜索域信息:

domains?nsIp=ZZZZ

域?nsIp=ZZZZ

ZZZZ is a search pattern representing an IPv4 [RFC1166] or IPv6 [RFC5952] address. The following URL would be used to search for domains that have been delegated to nameservers that resolve to the "192.0.2.0" address:

ZZZZ是表示IPv4[RFC1166]或IPv6[RFC5952]地址的搜索模式。以下URL将用于搜索已委托给解析为“192.0.2.0”地址的名称服务器的域:

   https://example.com/rdap/domains?nsIp=192.0.2.0
        
   https://example.com/rdap/domains?nsIp=192.0.2.0
        
3.2.2. Nameserver Search
3.2.2. 名称服务器搜索
   Syntax: nameservers?name=<nameserver search pattern>
        
   Syntax: nameservers?name=<nameserver search pattern>
        
   Syntax: nameservers?ip=<nameserver search pattern>
        
   Syntax: nameservers?ip=<nameserver search pattern>
        

Searches for nameserver information by nameserver name are specified using this form:

使用以下表单指定按名称服务器名称搜索名称服务器信息:

nameservers?name=XXXX

名称服务器?名称=XXXX

XXXX is a search pattern representing a host name in "letters, digits, hyphen" format [RFC5890] in a zone administered by the server operator of a DNR. The following URL would be used to find DNR information for nameserver names matching the "ns1.example*.com" pattern:

XXXX是一种搜索模式,在DNR服务器操作员管理的区域内,以“字母、数字、连字符”格式[RFC5890]表示主机名。以下URL将用于查找与“ns1.example*.com”模式匹配的名称服务器名称的DNR信息:

   https://example.com/rdap/nameservers?name=ns1.example*.com
        
   https://example.com/rdap/nameservers?name=ns1.example*.com
        

Internationalized nameserver names in U-label format [RFC5890] can also be used as search patterns (see Section 4). Searches for these names are of the form /nameservers?name=XXXX, where XXXX is a search pattern representing a nameserver name in U-label format [RFC5890]. See Section 6.1 for information on character encoding for the U-label format.

U-label格式[RFC5890]的国际化名称服务器名称也可以用作搜索模式(参见第4节)。搜索这些名称的形式为/nameservers?name=XXXX,其中XXXX是一种搜索模式,表示U标签格式[RFC5890]的名称服务器名称。有关U型标签格式的字符编码信息,请参见第6.1节。

Searches for nameserver information by nameserver IP address are specified using this form:

使用以下表单指定按名称服务器IP地址搜索名称服务器信息:

nameservers?ip=YYYY

名称服务器?ip=YYYY

YYYY is a search pattern representing an IPv4 [RFC1166] or IPv6 [RFC5952] address. The following URL would be used to search for nameserver names that resolve to the "192.0.2.0" address:

YYYY是表示IPv4[RFC1166]或IPv6[RFC5952]地址的搜索模式。以下URL将用于搜索解析为“192.0.2.0”地址的名称服务器名称:

   https://example.com/rdap/nameservers?ip=192.0.2.0
        
   https://example.com/rdap/nameservers?ip=192.0.2.0
        
3.2.3. Entity Search
3.2.3. 实体搜索
   Syntax: entities?fn=<entity name search pattern>
        
   Syntax: entities?fn=<entity name search pattern>
        
   Syntax: entities?handle=<entity handle search pattern>
        
   Syntax: entities?handle=<entity handle search pattern>
        

Searches for entity information by name are specified using this form:

使用以下表单指定按名称搜索实体信息:

entities?fn=XXXX

实体?fn=XXXX

XXXX is a search pattern representing the "FN" property of an entity (such as a contact, registrant, or registrar) name as specified in Section 5.1 of [RFC7483]. The following URL would be used to find information for entity names matching the "Bobby Joe*" pattern:

XXXX是一种搜索模式,表示[RFC7483]第5.1节规定的实体(如联系人、注册人或注册人)名称的“FN”属性。以下URL将用于查找与“Bobby Joe*”模式匹配的实体名称的信息:

   https://example.com/rdap/entities?fn=Bobby%20Joe*
        
   https://example.com/rdap/entities?fn=Bobby%20Joe*
        

Searches for entity information by handle are specified using this form:

使用以下表单指定按句柄搜索实体信息:

entities?handle=XXXX

实体?句柄=XXXX

XXXX is a search pattern representing an entity (such as a contact, registrant, or registrar) identifier whose syntax is specific to the registration provider. The following URL would be used to find information for entity handles matching the "CID-40*" pattern:

XXXX是一种搜索模式,表示实体(如联系人、注册人或注册人)标识符,其语法特定于注册提供商。以下URL将用于查找与“CID-40*”模式匹配的实体句柄的信息:

   https://example.com/rdap/entities?handle=CID-40*
        
   https://example.com/rdap/entities?handle=CID-40*
        

URLs MUST be properly encoded according to the rules of [RFC3986]. In the example above, "Bobby Joe*" is encoded to "Bobby%20Joe*".

URL必须根据[RFC3986]的规则正确编码。在上面的示例中,“Bobby Joe*”