Network Working Group                                      S. Waldbusser
Request for Comments: 3577                                       R. Cole
Category: Informational                                             AT&T
                                                          C. Kalbfleisch
                                                             Verio, Inc.
                                                            D. Romascanu
                                                             August 2003
Network Working Group                                      S. Waldbusser
Request for Comments: 3577                                       R. Cole
Category: Informational                                             AT&T
                                                          C. Kalbfleisch
                                                             Verio, Inc.
                                                            D. Romascanu
                                                             August 2003

Introduction to the Remote Monitoring (RMON) Family of MIB Modules


Status of this Memo


This memo provides information for the Internet community. It does not specify an Internet standard of any kind. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.


Copyright Notice


Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved.




The Remote Monitoring (RMON) Framework consists of a number of interrelated documents. This memo describes these documents and how they relate to one another.


Table of Contents


   1.  The Internet-Standard Management Framework . . . . . . . . . .  2
   2.  Definition of RMON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2
   3.  Goals of RMON. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   4.  RMON Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
       4.1.  RMON-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       4.2.  Token Ring Extensions to RMON MIB. . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       4.3.  The RMON-2 MIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       4.4.  RMON MIB Protocol Identifiers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       4.5.  Remote Network Monitoring MIB Extensions for Switched
             Networks (SMON MIB). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       4.6.  RMON MIB Extensions for Interface Parameters Monitoring
             (IFTOPN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       4.7.  RMON Extensions for Differentiated Services (DSMON MIB). 12
       4.8.  RMON for High Capacity Networks (HCRMON MIB) . . . . . . 13
       4.9.  Application Performance Measurement MIB (APM MIB). . . . 14
       4.10. RMON MIB Protocol Identifier Reference Extensions. . . . 15
       4.11. Transport Performance Metrics MIB (TPM MIB). . . . . . . 16
   1.  The Internet-Standard Management Framework . . . . . . . . . .  2
   2.  Definition of RMON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2
   3.  Goals of RMON. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   4.  RMON Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
       4.1.  RMON-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       4.2.  Token Ring Extensions to RMON MIB. . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       4.3.  The RMON-2 MIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       4.4.  RMON MIB Protocol Identifiers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       4.5.  Remote Network Monitoring MIB Extensions for Switched
             Networks (SMON MIB). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       4.6.  RMON MIB Extensions for Interface Parameters Monitoring
             (IFTOPN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       4.7.  RMON Extensions for Differentiated Services (DSMON MIB). 12
       4.8.  RMON for High Capacity Networks (HCRMON MIB) . . . . . . 13
       4.9.  Application Performance Measurement MIB (APM MIB). . . . 14
       4.10. RMON MIB Protocol Identifier Reference Extensions. . . . 15
       4.11. Transport Performance Metrics MIB (TPM MIB). . . . . . . 16
       4.12. Synthetic Sources for Performance Monitoring MIB
             (SSPM MIB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
       4.13. RMON MIB Extensions for High Capacity Alarms . . . . . . 17
       4.14. Real-Time  Application Quality of Service Monitoring
             (RAQMON) MIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   5.  RMON Framework Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       5.1.  MediaIndependent Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       5.2.  Protocol Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
       5.3.  Application Directory and appLocalIndex. . . . . . . . . 21
       5.4.  Data Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
       5.5.  Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
       5.6.  Control Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   6.  Relationship of the SSPM MIB with the APM and TPM MIBs . . . . 24
   7.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   8.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
       8.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
       8.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   9.  Security Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
   10. Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
   11. Full Copyright Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
       4.12. Synthetic Sources for Performance Monitoring MIB
             (SSPM MIB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
       4.13. RMON MIB Extensions for High Capacity Alarms . . . . . . 17
       4.14. Real-Time  Application Quality of Service Monitoring
             (RAQMON) MIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   5.  RMON Framework Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       5.1.  MediaIndependent Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       5.2.  Protocol Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
       5.3.  Application Directory and appLocalIndex. . . . . . . . . 21
       5.4.  Data Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
       5.5.  Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
       5.6.  Control Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   6.  Relationship of the SSPM MIB with the APM and TPM MIBs . . . . 24
   7.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   8.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
       8.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
       8.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   9.  Security Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
   10. Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
   11. Full Copyright Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
1. The Internet-Standard Management Framework
1. 因特网标准管理框架

For a detailed overview of the documents that describe the current Internet-Standard Management Framework, please refer to section 7 of RFC 3410 [RFC3410].

有关描述当前互联网标准管理框架的文件的详细概述,请参阅RFC 3410[RFC3410]第7节。

Managed objects are accessed via a virtual information store, termed the Management Information Base or MIB. MIB objects are generally accessed through the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Objects in the MIB are defined using the mechanisms defined in the Structure of Management Information (SMI). This memo specifies a MIB module that is compliant to the SMIv2, which is described in STD 58, RFC 2578 [RFC2578], STD 58, RFC 2579 [RFC2579] and STD 58, RFC 2580 [RFC2580].

托管对象通过虚拟信息存储(称为管理信息库或MIB)进行访问。MIB对象通常通过简单网络管理协议(SNMP)进行访问。MIB中的对象是使用管理信息结构(SMI)中定义的机制定义的。本备忘录规定了符合SMIv2的MIB模块,如STD 58、RFC 2578[RFC2578]、STD 58、RFC 2579[RFC2579]和STD 58、RFC 2580[RFC2580]所述。

2. Definition of RMON
2. RMON的定义

Remote network monitoring devices, often called monitors or probes, are instruments that exist for the purpose of managing and/or monitoring a network. Often these remote probes are stand-alone devices and devote significant internal resources for the sole purpose of managing a network. An organization may employ many of these devices, up to one per network segment, to manage its internet. In addition, these devices may be used to manage a geographically remote network such as for a network management support center of a service provider to manage a client network, or for the central support organization of an enterprise to manage a remote site.


When the work on the RMON documents was started, this device-oriented definition of RMON was taken quite literally, as RMON devices were purpose-built probes and dedicated to implementing the RMON MIB modules. Soon, cards were introduced that added RMON capability into a network hub, switch or router. RMON also began to appear as a software capability that was added to the software of certain network equipment, as well as software applications that could run on servers or clients. Despite the variety of these approaches, the RMON capability in each serves as a dedicated network management resource available for activities ranging from long-term data collection and analysis or for ad-hoc firefighting.

当关于RMON文档的工作开始时,RMON的这种面向设备的定义被完全理解为字面意思,因为RMON设备是专门构建的探测器,专用于实现RMON MIB模块。不久,引入了将RMON功能添加到网络集线器、交换机或路由器中的卡。RMON还开始作为一种软件功能出现,添加到某些网络设备的软件中,以及可以在服务器或客户端上运行的软件应用程序中。尽管这些方法多种多样,但每种方法中的RMON功能都是专用的网络管理资源,可用于长期数据收集和分析或临时消防等活动。

In the beginning, most, but not all, of RMON's capabilities were based on the promiscuous capture of packets on a network segment or segments. Over time, that mixture included more and more capabilities that did not depend on promiscuous packet capture. Today, some of the newest documents added to the RMON framework allow multiple techniques of data gathering, where promiscuous packet capture is just one of several implementation options.


3. Goals of RMON
3. RMON的目标

o Offline Operation

o 脱机操作

There are sometimes conditions when a management station will not be in constant contact with its remote monitoring devices. This is sometimes by design in an attempt to lower communications costs (especially when communicating over a WAN or dialup link), or by accident as network failures affect the communications between the management station and the probe.


For this reason, RMON allows a probe to be configured to perform diagnostics and to collect statistics continuously, even when communication with the management station may not be possible or efficient. The probe may then attempt to notify the management station when an exceptional condition occurs. Thus, even in circumstances where communication between management station and probe is not continuous, fault, performance, and configuration information may be continuously accumulated and communicated to the management station conveniently and efficiently.


o Proactive Monitoring

o 主动监测

Given the resources available on the monitor, it is potentially helpful for it to continuously run diagnostics and to log network performance. The monitor is always available at the onset of any failure. It can notify the management station of


the failure and can store historical statistical information about the failure. This historical information can be played back by the management station in an attempt to perform further diagnosis into the cause of the problem.


o Problem Detection and Reporting

o 问题检测和报告

The monitor can be configured to recognize conditions, most notably error conditions, and to continuously check for them. When one of these conditions occurs, the event may be logged, and management stations may be notified in a number of ways.


o Value Added Data

o 增值数据

Because a remote monitoring device represents a network resource dedicated exclusively to network management functions, and because it is located directly on the monitored portion of the network, the remote network monitoring device has the opportunity to add significant value to the data it collects. For instance, by highlighting those hosts on the network that generate the most traffic or errors, the probe can give the management station precisely the information it needs to solve a class of problems.


o Multiple Managers

o 多位经理

An organization may have multiple management stations for different units of the organization, for different functions (e.g., engineering and operations), and in an attempt to provide disaster recovery. Because environments with multiple management stations are common, the remote network monitoring device has to deal with more than one management station, potentially using its resources concurrently.


4. RMON Documents
4. RMON文件

The RMON Framework includes a number of documents. Each document that makes up the RMON framework defines some new useful behavior (i.e., an application) and managed objects that configure, control and monitor that behavior. This section lists those documents and describes the role of each.


One of the key ways to differentiate the various RMON MIB modules is by noting at which layer they operate. Because the RMON MIB modules take measurements and present aggregates of those measurements, there are 2 criteria to quantify for each MIB:

区分各种RMON MIB模块的关键方法之一是注意它们在哪一层操作。由于RMON MIB模块进行测量并呈现这些测量的集合,因此每个MIB有两个量化标准:

1. At which layers does the MIB take measurements?

1. MIB在哪一层进行测量?

For example, the RMON MIB measures data-link layer attributes (e.g., packets, bytes, errors), while the APM MIB measures application layer attributes (e.g., response time). Supporting measurement at higher layers requires analysis deeper into the packet and many application layer measurements require stateful flow analysis.

例如,RMON MIB测量数据链路层属性(例如,数据包、字节、错误),而APM MIB测量应用层属性(例如,响应时间)。支持更高层的测量需要对数据包进行更深入的分析,许多应用层测量需要有状态流分析。

2. At which layers does the MIB aggregate measurements?

2. MIB在哪些层聚集测量值?

This criteria notes the granularity of aggregation. For example, the RMON MIB aggregates its measurements to the link, hardware address, or hardware address pair - all data-link concepts. In contrast, the RMON-2 MIB takes the same data-link metrics (packets, bytes, errors) and aggregates them based on network address, transport protocol, or application protocol.

此标准说明了聚合的粒度。例如,RMON MIB将其测量值聚合到链路、硬件地址或硬件地址对-所有数据链路概念。相反,RMON-2 MIB采用相同的数据链路度量(数据包、字节、错误),并基于网络地址、传输协议或应用程序协议对其进行聚合。

Note that a MIB may take measurements at one level while aggregating at different levels. Also note that a MIB may function at multiple levels. Figure 1 and Figure 2 show the measurement layers and aggregation layers for each MIB.


Measurement Layers


Data Link Network Transport Application Layer Layer Layer Layer RMON-1 X TR-RMON X RMON-2 X SMON X IFTopN X HCRMON X APM X TPM X


Figure 1


Aggregation Layers


Data Link Network Transport Application Layer Layer Layer Layer RMON-1 X TR-RMON X RMON-2 X X X SMON X IFTopN X HCRMON X APM X X X TPM X X X


Figure 2


4.1. RMON-1
4.1. RMON-1

The RMON-1 standard [RFC2819] is focused at layer 2 and provides link-layer statistics aggregated in a variety of ways. In addition, it provides the generation of alarms when thresholds are crossed, as well as the ability to filter and capture packet contents. The components of RMON-1 are:


The Ethernet Statistics Group


The ethernet statistics group contains statistics measured by the probe for each monitored Ethernet interface on this device.

ethernet statistics(以太网统计信息)组包含探测器为此设备上的每个受监控以太网接口测量的统计信息。

The History Control Group


The history control group controls the periodic statistical sampling of data from various types of network media.


The Ethernet History Group


The ethernet history group records periodic statistical samples from an ethernet network and stores them for later retrieval.

ethernet history(以太网历史记录)组记录来自以太网网络的定期统计样本,并将其存储起来以供以后检索。

The Alarm Group


The alarm group periodically takes statistical samples from variables in the probe and compares them to previously configured thresholds. If the monitored variable crosses a threshold, an event is generated. A hysteresis mechanism is implemented to limit the generation of alarms.


The Host Group


The host group contains statistics associated with each host discovered on the network. This group discovers hosts on the network by keeping a list of source and destination MAC Addresses seen in good packets promiscuously received from the network.


The HostTopN Group


The hostTopN group is used to prepare reports that describe the hosts that top a list ordered by one of their statistics. The available statistics are samples of one of their base statistics over an interval specified by the management station. Thus, these statistics are rate based. The management station also selects how many such hosts are reported.


The Matrix Group


The matrix group stores statistics for conversations between sets of two MAC addresses. As the device detects a new conversation, it creates a new entry in its tables.


The Filter Group


The filter group allows packets to be matched by a filter equation. These matched packets form a data stream that may be captured or may generate events.


The Packet Capture Group


The Packet Capture group allows packets to be captured after they flow through a channel.


The Event Group


The event group controls the generation and notification of events from this device.


4.2. Token Ring Extensions to RMON MIB
4.2. RMON MIB的令牌环扩展

Some of the functions defined in the RMON-1 MIB were defined specific to Ethernet media. In order to operate the functions on Token Ring Media, new objects needed to be defined in the Token Ring Extensions to RMON MIB [RFC1513]. In addition, this MIB defines additional objects that provide monitoring functions unique to Token Ring.

RMON-1 MIB中定义的一些功能是针对以太网介质定义的。为了在令牌环媒体上操作功能,需要在RMON MIB[RFC1513]的令牌环扩展中定义新对象。此外,此MIB定义了提供令牌环特有的监视功能的其他对象。

The components of the Token Ring Extensions to RMON MIB are:

RMON MIB令牌环扩展的组件包括:

The Token Ring Statistics Groups


The Token Ring statistics groups contain current utilization and error statistics. The statistics are broken down into two groups, the Token Ring Mac-Layer Statistics Group and the Token Ring Promiscuous Statistics Group. The Token Ring Mac-Layer Statistics Group collects information from the Mac Layer, including error reports for the ring and ring utilization of the Mac Layer. The Token Ring Promiscuous Statistics Group collects utilization statistics from data packets collected promiscuously.


The Token Ring History Groups


The Token Ring History Groups contain historical utilization and error statistics. The statistics are broken down into two groups, the Token Ring Mac-Layer History Group and the Token Ring Promiscuous History Group. The Token Ring Mac-Layer History Group collects information from the Mac Layer, including error reports for the ring and ring utilization of the Mac Layer. The Token Ring Promiscuous History Group collects utilization statistics from data packets collected promiscuously.


The Token Ring Ring Station Group


The Token Ring Ring Station Group contains statistics and status information associated with each Token Ring station on the local ring. In addition, this group provides status information for each ring being monitored.


The Token Ring Ring Station Order Group


The Token Ring Ring Station Order Group provides the order of the stations on monitored rings.


The Token Ring Ring Station Config Group


The Token Ring Ring Station Config Group manages token ring stations through active means. Any station on a monitored ring may be removed or have configuration information downloaded from it.


The Token Ring Source Routing Group


The Token Ring Source Routing Group contains utilization statistics derived from source routing information optionally present in token ring packets.


4.3. The RMON-2 MIB
4.3. RMON-2 MIB

The RMON-2 MIB [RFC2021] extends the architecture defined in RMON-1, primarily by extending RMON analysis up to the application layer.

RMON-2 MIB[RFC2021]主要通过将RMON分析扩展到应用层来扩展RMON-1中定义的体系结构。

The components of the RMON-2 MIB are:

RMON-2 MIB的组件包括:

The Protocol Directory Group


Every RMON-2 implementation will have the capability to parse certain types of packets and identify their protocol type at multiple levels. The protocol directory presents an inventory of those protocol types the probe is capable of monitoring, and allows the addition, deletion, and configuration of protocol types in this list.


Protocol Distribution Group


This function controls the collection of packet and octet counts for any or all protocols detected on a given interface. An NMS can use this table to quickly determine bandwidth allocation utilized by different protocols.


Address Mapping Group


This function lists MAC address to network address bindings discovered by the probe and on which interface they were last seen.


Network Layer Host Group


This function counts the amount of traffic sent from and to each network address discovered by the probe.


Network Layer Matrix Group


This function counts the amount of traffic sent between each pair of network addresses discovered by the probe.


Application Layer Host Group


This function counts the amount of traffic, by protocol, sent from and to each network address discovered by the probe.


Application Layer Matrix


This function counts the amount of traffic, by protocol, sent between each pair of network addresses discovered by the probe.


User History


This function allows an NMS to request that certain variables on the probe be periodically polled and for a time-series to be stored of the polled values. This builds a user-configurable set of variables to be monitored (not to be confused with data about users).


Probe Configuration


This group contains configuration objects that configure many aspects of the probe, including the software downloaded to the probe, the out of band serial connection, and the network connection.


4.4. RMON MIB Protocol Identifiers
4.4. RMON MIB协议标识符

The RMON-2 MIB identifies protocols at any layer of the 7 layer hierarchy with an identifier called a Protocol Identifier, or ProtocolID for short. ProtocolIDs also identify the particular configuration of layering in use, including any arbitrary encapsulations. The RMON MIB Protocol Identifiers document [RFC2896] is a companion document to the RMON-2 MIB that defines a number of well-known protocols. Another document, the RMON MIB Protocol Identifiers Macros [RFC2895], defines a macro format for the description of these well-known protocols and others that may be described in the future.

RMON-2 MIB使用称为协议标识符(简称ProtocolID)的标识符识别7层层次结构中任何一层的协议。protocolid还标识正在使用的分层的特定配置,包括任意封装。RMON MIB协议标识符文档[RFC2896]是RMON-2 MIB的配套文档,该文档定义了许多众所周知的协议。另一个文档,RMON MIB协议标识符宏[RFC2895],定义了用于描述这些已知协议和将来可能描述的其他协议的宏格式。

As the RMON Framework has grown, other documents have been added to the framework that utilize ProtocolIDs.


4.5. Remote Network Monitoring MIB Extensions for Switched Networks (SMON MIB)

4.5. 用于交换网络的远程网络监控MIB扩展(SMON MIB)

Switches have become pervasive in today's networks as a form of broadcast media. SMON [RFC2613] provides RMON-like functions for the monitoring of switched networks.


Switches today differ from standard shared media protocols because:


1) Data is not, in general, broadcast. This MAY be caused by the switch architecture or by the connection-oriented nature of the data. This means, therefore, that monitoring non-broadcast traffic needs to be considered.

1) 一般来说,数据不是广播的。这可能是由交换机体系结构或数据面向连接的特性造成的。因此,这意味着需要考虑监控非广播流量。

2) Monitoring the multiple entry and exit points from a Switching device requires a vast amount of resources - memory and CPU, and aggregation of the data in logical packets of information, determined by the application needs.

2) 监控一个交换设备的多个入口和出口需要大量的资源——内存和CPU,以及由应用程序需求决定的逻辑信息包中的数据聚合。

3) Switching incorporates logical segmentation such as Virtual LANs (VLANs).

3) 交换包含逻辑分段,如虚拟局域网(VLAN)。

4) Switching incorporates packet prioritization.

4) 交换结合了分组优先级。

5) Data across the switch fabric can be in the form of cells. Like RMON, SMON is only concerned with the monitoring of packets.

5) 交换结构中的数据可以是单元的形式。与RMON一样,SMON只关注数据包的监视。

Differences such as these make monitoring difficult. The SMON MIB provides the following functions that help to manage switched networks:

诸如此类的差异使监控变得困难。SMON MIB提供以下有助于管理交换网络的功能:



This function provides traffic statistics per Virtual LAN for 802.1q VLANs.

此函数为802.1q VLAN提供每个虚拟LAN的流量统计信息。



This function provides traffic statistics per priority level for 802.1q VLANS.

此函数为802.1q VLAN提供每个优先级的流量统计信息。



This function identifies all supported data sources on a SMON device. An NMS MAY use this table to discover the RMON and Copy Port attributes of each data source.




Many network switches provide the capability to make a copy of traffic seen on one port and sending it out to another port for management purposes. This occurs in addition to any copying performed during the normal forwarding behavior of the switch.


The portCopyConfig function provides control of the port copy functionality in a device.


4.6. RMON MIB Extensions for Interface Parameters Monitoring (IFTOPN)
4.6. 用于接口参数监视的RMON MIB扩展(IFTOPN)

Many network switches contain hundreds of ports, many with only one attached device. A common operation when managing such a switch is to sort the interfaces by one of the parameters (e.g., to find the most highly utilized interface). If the switch contains many interfaces it can be expensive and time consuming to download information for all interfaces to sort it on the NMS. Instead, the ifTopN MIB [RFC3144] allows the sorting to occur on the switch and for only the top interfaces to be downloaded.

许多网络交换机包含数百个端口,许多端口仅连接一个设备。管理此类交换机时的常见操作是按其中一个参数对接口进行排序(例如,查找利用率最高的接口)。如果交换机包含多个接口,则下载所有接口的信息以在NMS上对其进行排序可能既昂贵又耗时。相反,ifTopN MIB[RFC3144]允许在交换机上进行排序,并且只允许下载顶部接口。

4.7. RMON Extensions for Differentiated Services (DSMON MIB)
4.7. 区分服务的RMON扩展(DSMON MIB)

This MIB [RFC3287] defines extensions of RMON for monitoring the traffic usage of Differentiated Services [RFC2474] codepoint values. The 6-bit DiffServ codepoint portion (DSCP) of the Type of Service (TOS) octet in the IP header provides for 64 different packet treatments for the implementation of differentiated network devices. DSMON-capable RMON probes collect and aggregate statistics based on the inspection of the DSCP value in monitored packets.


The DSMON MIB defines a DSCP counter aggregation mechanism to reduce the total number of counters by configuring the agent to internally aggregate counters based on the DSCP value. This mechanism is designed to overcome the agent data collection limitation, perform data reduction at the agent and applications level, and optimize the application for cases in which some codepoint values are not used, or lead to similar packet treatment in the monitored network domain.

DSMON MIB定义了一种DSCP计数器聚合机制,通过将代理配置为基于DSCP值内部聚合计数器来减少计数器总数。此机制旨在克服代理数据收集限制,在代理和应用程序级别执行数据缩减,并针对未使用某些代码点值的情况优化应用程序,或导致在受监控网络域中进行类似的数据包处理。

The components of the DSMON MIB are:


The Aggregate Control Group


The Aggregate Control Group enables the configuration of the counter aggregation groups.


The DSMON Statistics Group


The DSMON Statistics Group contains per counter aggregation group distribution statistics for a particular RMON data source.


The DSMON Protocol Distribution Group


The DSMON Protocol Distribution Group reports per counter aggregation distribution statistics for each application protocol detected on a particular RMON data source.


The DSMON Host Group


The DSMON Host Group contains host address distribution statistics for each counter aggregation group, detected on a particular RMON data source.


The DSMON Capabilities Group


The DSMON Capabilities Group reports the DSMON MIB functional capabilities of the agent implementation.

DSMON能力组报告代理实现的DSMON MIB功能能力。

The DSMON Matrix Group


The DSMON Matrix Group contains host address pair distribution statistics for each counter aggregation group, detected on a particular RMON data source.


4.8. RMON for High Capacity Networks (HCRMON MIB)
4.8. 高容量网络的RMON(HCRMON MIB)

This MIB [RFC3272] defines extensions to RMON for use on high capacity networks. Except for the mediaIndependentTable, each of the tables in this MIB adds high capacity capability to an associated table in the RMON-1 MIB or RMON-2 MIB.

此MIB[RFC3272]定义了RMON的扩展,用于高容量网络。除了mediaIndependentTable之外,此MIB中的每个表都会向RMON-1 MIB或RMON-2 MIB中的关联表添加高容量功能。

The mediaIndependentTable provides media independent utilization and error statistics for full-duplex and half-duplex media. Prior to the existence of the HCRMON MIB, a new table needed to be created for RMON monitoring of each data-link layer media. These tables included many statistical attributes of the media, including packet and octet counters that are independent of the media type. This was not optimal because there was no way to monitor media types for which a media-specific table had not been defined. Further, there were no common objects to monitor media-independent attributes between media types.

mediaIndependentTable为全双工和半双工介质提供独立于介质的利用率和错误统计信息。在存在HCRMON MIB之前,需要为每个数据链路层介质的RMON监控创建一个新表。这些表包括媒体的许多统计属性,包括独立于媒体类型的数据包和八位字节计数器。这不是最优的,因为无法监视尚未定义媒体特定表的媒体类型。此外,没有通用对象来监视媒体类型之间的媒体独立属性。

In the future, for media other than ethernet and token ring, the mediaIndependentTable will be the source for media-independent statistics. Additional media-specific tables may be created to provide attributes unique to particular media, such as error counters.


4.9. Application Performance Measurement MIB (APM MIB)
4.9. 应用程序性能度量MIB(APM MIB)

The APM MIB [APM] provides analysis of application performance as experienced by end-users.

APM MIB[APM]提供对最终用户体验的应用程序性能的分析。

Application performance measurement measures the quality of service delivered to end-users by applications. With this perspective, a true end-to-end view of the IT infrastructure results, combining the performance of the application, desktop, network, and server, as well as any positive or negative interactions between these components.


Despite all the technically sophisticated ways in which networking and system resources can be measured, human end-users perceive only two things about an application: availability and responsiveness.


Availability - The percentage of the time that the application is ready to give a user service.


Responsiveness - The speed at which the application delivers the requested service.


The APM MIB includes the following functions:

APM MIB包括以下功能:

The APM Application Directory Group


The APM Application Directory group contains configuration objects for every application or application verb monitored on this system.


The APM User Defined Applications Group


The APM User Defined Applications Group contains objects that allow for the tracking of applications or application verbs that are not registered in the protocolDirectoryTable.


The APM Report Group


The APM Report Group is used to prepare regular reports that aggregate application performance by flow, by client, by server, or by application.


The APM Transaction Group


The APM Transaction Group is used to show transactions that are currently in progress and ones that have ended recently, along with their responsiveness metric.


One important benefit of this table is that it allows a management station to check on the status of long-lived transactions. Because the apmReport and apmException mechanisms act only on transactions that have finished, a network manager may not have visibility for some time into the performance of long-lived transactions, such as streaming applications, large data transfers, or (very) poorly performing transactions. In fact, by their very definition, the apmReport and apmException mechanisms only provide visibility into a problem after nothing can be done about it.


The APM Exception Group


The APM Exception Group is used to generate immediate notifications of transactions that cross certain thresholds. The apmExceptionTable is used to configure which thresholds are to be checked for which types of transactions. The apmTransactionResponsivenessAlarm notification is sent when a transaction occurs with a responsiveness that crosses a threshold.


The apmTransactionUnsuccessfulAlarm notification is sent when a transaction, for which exception checking was configured, fails.


The APM Notification Group


The APM Notification Group contains 2 notifications that are sent when thresholds in the APM Exception Table are exceeded.


4.10. RMON MIB Protocol Identifier Reference Extensions
4.10. RMON MIB协议标识符引用扩展

The protocol identifier defined in RMON-2 [RFC2021] can identify any protocol at any layer and its encapsulation. The protocol identifier macro document [RFC2896] defines a convenient human readable and machine parseable format for documenting well-known protocols.


For the most part, the protocol identifiers used by RMON-2 implementations have described protocols at any layer, including the application layer, but have not gone any deeper into the application. In order to differentiate an application's behavior while performing different tasks (logging in vs. downloading, for example), it is important to have a separate protocol identifier for each application "verb". The macro defined in [RFC2896] is inconvenient for defining application verbs because it assumes that most protocols are identified by an integer type field and many or most applications use other means for identifying verbs, including character strings.


These extensions define another macro for defining application verbs that are children of an application. The parent application can be defined with the original protocol identifier macro and the application verbs are defined with the new macro.


4.11. Transport Performance Metrics MIB (TPM MIB)
4.11. 传输性能度量MIB(TPM MIB)

The TPM MIB [TPM] monitors selected performance metrics and statistics derived from the monitoring of network packets and sub-application level transactions. The MIB is defined to compliment the APM reports by providing a 'drill-down' capability to better understand selected applications' performance. The metrics are defined through reference to existing IETF, ITU and other standards organizations' documents. The monitoring covers both passive and active traffic generation sources.

TPM MIB[TPM]监视从监视网络数据包和子应用程序级事务中获得的选定性能指标和统计数据。MIB的定义是通过提供“深入”功能来更好地了解选定应用程序的性能,从而补充APM报告。这些指标是通过参考现有的IETF、ITU和其他标准组织的文件来定义的。监测包括被动和主动交通生成源。

The TPM MIB includes the following functions:

TPM MIB包括以下功能:

The tpmCapabilities Group


The tpmCapabilitiesGroup contains objects and tables that show the measurement protocol and metric capabilities of the agent.


The tpmAggregateReports Group


The tpmAggregateReportsGroup is used to provide the collection of aggregated statistical measurements for the configured report intervals.

TPM AggregateReportsGroup用于为配置的报告间隔提供聚合统计度量的集合。

The tpmCurrentReports Group


The tpmCurrentReportsGroup is used to provide the collection of uncompleted measurements for the current configured report for those transactions caught in progress. A history of these transactions is also maintained once the current transaction has completed.


The tpmExceptionReports Group


The tpmExceptionReportsGroup is used to link immediate notifications of transactions that exceed certain thresholds defined in the apmExceptionGroup [APM]. This group reports the aggregated sub-application measurements for those applications exceeding thresholds.


4.12. Synthetic Sources for Performance Monitoring MIB (SSPM MIB)
4.12. 性能监控MIB(SSPM MIB)的合成源

The Synthetic Sources for Performance Monitoring MIB [SSPM] covers the artificial generation of a) application-level, b) transport-level, and c) link-level traffic for the purpose of monitoring system performance. There are situations where it is useful to be able to control the generation of synthetic traffic when evaluating system performance. There are other situations where system performance evaluation can rely upon naturally generated application-level traffic, in which case one needs only monitor existing traffic and not instrument synthetic traffic. The SSPM MIB provides the ability to configure and control the generation of this synthetic traffic.

性能监控MIB[SSPM]的合成源包括a)应用程序级、b)传输级和c)链路级流量的人工生成,以监控系统性能。在某些情况下,在评估系统性能时,能够控制合成流量的产生是有用的。还有一些情况下,系统性能评估可以依赖于自然生成的应用程序级流量,在这种情况下,只需监控现有流量,而不需要仪表合成流量。SSPM MIB提供了配置和控制合成流量生成的能力。

4.13. RMON MIB Extensions for High Capacity Alarms
4.13. 用于高容量报警的RMON MIB扩展

There is a need for a standardized way of providing the same type of alarm thresholding capabilities for Counter64 objects, as already exists for Counter32 objects. The RMON-1 alarmTable objects and RMON-1 notification types are specific to 32-bit objects, and cannot be used to properly monitor Counter64-based objects. Extensions to these existing constructs are needed which explicitly support Counter64-based objects. These extensions are completely independent of the existing RMON-1 alarm mechanisms.

需要一种标准化的方法为Counter64对象提供与Counter32对象相同类型的报警阈值功能。RMON-1 alarmTable对象和RMON-1通知类型特定于32位对象,无法用于正确监视基于计数器64的对象。需要对这些现有结构进行扩展,以明确支持基于Counter64的对象。这些扩展完全独立于现有的RMON-1报警机制。

This MIB [RFC3434] contains the following functions:


The hcAlarmControlObjects group


Controls the configuration of alarms for high capacity MIB object instances.


The hcAlarmCapabilities group


Describes the high capacity alarm capabilities provided by the agent.


The hcAlarmNotifications group


Provides new rising and falling threshold notifications for high capacity objects.


4.14. Real-Time Application Quality of Service Monitoring (RAQMON) MIB

4.14. 实时应用程序服务质量监控(RAQMON)MIB

There is a need to extend the RMON framework to monitor end devices such as IP phones, pagers, Instant Message Clients, mobile phones, and PDA devices. This memo proposes an extension of RMON Framework to allow Real-time Application QoS information of these types of end


devices to be retrieved with SNMP, independent of the technology used to perform the measurements. An end-to-end user experience of the quality of service (QoS) and performance for such an application is a combination of device performance, transport network performance and specific application context.


RAQMON [RAQMON-FRAMEWORK] defines a common framework to identify a set of application QoS parameters and a reporting mechanism using a common protocol data unit (PDU) format used between a RAQMON Data Source (RDS) and a RAQMON Report Collector (RRC) to report QOS statistics using RTCP and SNMP as underlying transport protocol.


See the RAQMON MIB [RAQMON-MIB] for more information about its components.

有关其组件的更多信息,请参阅RAQMON MIB[RAQMON-MIB]。

5. RMON Framework Components
5. RMON框架组件

The collection of documents in the RMON Framework are associated by 1) A common purpose and similar collection methodologies; and, 2) Use of common infrastructure components.


These common infrastructure components are:


- MediaIndependent Table - Protocol Directory - appDirectory - DataSource - Capabilities - Control Tables

- MediaIndependent表-协议目录-应用目录-数据源-功能-控制表

5.1. MediaIndependent Table
5.1. 媒体独立表

While many data-link media types exist and they each have unique features, there are many statistics that are common across most media. For example, counts of packets and octets are interesting for most media. The media independent table contains the most common such statistics and forms a super class from which specific interface types are inherited. This means that the common statistics can be monitored even for media types that are unknown.


For example, if the mediaindependentTable had existed prior to the definition of the etherStatsTable, the etherStatsTable could have omitted the etherStatsDropEvents, etherStatsOctets, etherStatsPkts objects.


The Media Independent Table is defined in the High Capacity RMON MIB [RFC3434].

介质独立表在高容量RMON MIB[RFC3434]中定义。

5.2. Protocol Directory
5.2. 协议目录

The second of the RMON infrastructure components is the Protocol Directory Group defined in the RMON-2 MIB [RFC2021]. The main objective of RMON-2 was to extend the remote network monitoring agents capabilities beyond the link layer to higher level protocol monitoring. This required a means to globally identify individual protocol encapsulations. This capability is provided by the Protocol Directory Group, specifically the protocolDirID found in the protocolDirTable in the RMON-2 MIB.

第二个RMON基础设施组件是RMON-2 MIB[RFC2021]中定义的协议目录组。RMON-2的主要目标是将远程网络监控代理的功能从链路层扩展到更高级别的协议监控。这需要一种全局识别单个协议封装的方法。此功能由协议目录组提供,特别是RMON-2 MIB中protocolDirTable中的protocolDirID。

The Protocol Directory allows the agent to provide an inventory of the protocols that the agent can decode, count, categorize and time. The directory and its objects are designed to allow for the addition, deletion and configuration of the protocol encapsulations in the directory list. Protocol Directory entries are identified primarily by an object called the protocolDirID. The protocolDirID is a hierarchically formatted OCTET STRING that globally identifies individual protocol encapsulations. A protocol descriptor macro has been defined in RFC 2895 [RFC2895] to describe the various protocol layers supported in the protocolDirID protocol hierarchy. The protocolDirID is defined as a tree built up from successive protocol encapsulations. Each layer is identified by a 4-octet identifier that identifies the child protocol within the context of the parent protocol identified by the preceding identifiers.

协议目录允许代理提供代理可以解码、计数、分类和计时的协议清单。目录及其对象的设计允许在目录列表中添加、删除和配置协议封装。协议目录条目主要由名为protocolDirID的对象标识。protocolDirID是一个分层格式的八位字节字符串,全局标识各个协议封装。RFC 2895[RFC2895]中定义了协议描述符宏,用于描述protocolDirID协议层次结构中支持的各种协议层。protocolDirID被定义为从连续的协议封装中建立起来的树。每一层由一个4-octet标识符标识,该标识符在由前面的标识符标识的父协议的上下文中标识子协议。

Associated with each protocol layer in the protocolDirID is a 1-octet parameter field. Each parameter identifies potential options specific to that protocol, such as the agent's capability to count fragmented packets correctly and to track sessions for port mapped protocols, e.g., TFTP. These 1-octet parameter fields are concatenated, in order, in the protocolDirParameters object.


The protocolDirTable index is comprised of the protocolDirID, the protocolDirParameters and their associated length fields. The index format is shown in Figure 3.


      | c !                          | c !  protocolDir  |
      | n !  protocolDirID           | n !  Parameters   |
      | t !                          | t !               |
      | c !                          | c !  protocolDir  |
      | n !  protocolDirID           | n !  Parameters   |
      | t !                          | t !               |

Figure 3: the protocolDirTable INDEX format.


An example protocolDirTable INDEX for SNMP over UDP over IP over Ethernet is:

SNMP over UDP over IP over Ethernet的协议目录索引示例如下:

      |  |       |       |        |         | |       |
       c  ether2    ip      udp      snmp    c  param.
      |  |       |       |        |         | |       |
       c  ether2    ip      udp      snmp    c  param.
       c = 1-subidentifier count field
       c = 1-subidentifier count field

Figure 4: A protocolDirTable INDEX example for SNMP over UDP over IP over Ethernet.

图4:SNMP over UDP over IP over Ethernet的protocolDirTable索引示例。

The set of defined protocol layers currently described is found in RFC 2896 [RFC2896]. RFC 2895 [RFC2895] defines a process for submitting new protocols to add to the currently defined set. Periodic updates to RFC 2896 will be published to incorporate new protocol definitions that have been submitted. In fact, RFC 2896 is the second version of the defined protocol macros, obsoleting RFC 2074 [RFC2074]. RFC 2895 also defines how to handle protocols that do not map into this well-defined tree hierarchy built up from encapsulation protocol identifiers. An example of such a protocol encapsulation is RTP, which is mapped to specific UDP ports through a separate signaling mechanism. These are handled by the ianaAssigned protocols, as described in RFC 2895.

RFC 2896[RFC2896]中提供了当前描述的已定义协议层集。RFC 2895[RFC2895]定义了提交新协议以添加到当前定义集的过程。将发布RFC 2896的定期更新,以纳入已提交的新协议定义。事实上,RFC2896是已定义协议宏的第二个版本,淘汰了RFC2074[RFC2074]。RFC2895还定义了如何处理没有映射到这个由封装协议标识符构建的定义良好的树层次结构中的协议。这种协议封装的一个例子是RTP,它通过单独的信令机制映射到特定的UDP端口。如RFC 2895所述,这些由IANASAS签名协议处理。

The protocolDirTable is defined (and used) in the RMON-2 MIB [RFC2021], and is being used in other RMON WG MIBs, as well as other IETF defined MIBs. Examples include the APM MIB [APM], the TPM MIB [TPM] and the SSPM MIB [SSPM].

protocolDirTable在RMON-2 MIB[RFC2021]中定义(和使用),并在其他RMON WG MIB以及其他IETF定义的MIB中使用。示例包括APM MIB[APM]、TPM MIB[TPM]和SSPM MIB[SSPM]。

As mentioned in previous sections, the protocolDirID is being extended in two ways. First, work is underway on a new set of protocol descriptor macros to extend the protocol encapsulation model to identify application layer verbs [RFC3395]. This extension was motivated by the work on the APM MIB and the TPM MIB. Second, the APM MIB defines the apmAppDirectoryTable that provides a directory of applications that the agent can process. This is discussed further in the following section. Combined, these extensions allow:

如前几节所述,protocolDirID正在以两种方式进行扩展。首先,正在研究一组新的协议描述符宏,以扩展协议封装模型以识别应用层谓词[RFC3395]。此扩展的动机是APM MIB和TPM MIB上的工作。其次,APM MIB定义了apmAppDirectoryTable,它提供了代理可以处理的应用程序目录。这将在下一节中进一步讨论。这些扩展结合起来允许:

+ The APM MIB to define and monitor the end-user's view of application performance.

+ APM MIB用于定义和监视最终用户对应用程序性能的看法。

+ The TPM MIB to clearly specify the sub-transactions that comprise the application it monitors through the tpmTransMetricDirTable.

+ TPM MIB可以清楚地指定组成它通过tpmTransMetricDirTable监视的应用程序的子事务。

+ The SSPM MIB to generate synthetic application transactions by importing the appLocalIndex from the APM MIB.

+ SSPM MIB通过从APM MIB导入appLocalIndex来生成合成应用程序事务。

5.3. Application Directory and appLocalIndex
5.3. 应用程序目录和appLocalIndex

APM, TPM and related applications collect certain types of statistics for each application or application verb they are decoding. Some applications and application verbs are defined in the protocol directory and thus get their own protocolID and a corresponding protocolDirLocalIndex. Other application verbs are defined more dynamically by entries in the apmHttpFilterTable or apmUserDefinedAppTable. These dynamically defined applications do not have protocolDirID's assigned to them.


The APM MIB [APM] defines an important index called the appLocalIndex. For all application monitoring in the APM and TPM MIBs, applications are identified by integer values of the appLocalIndex. However, there is no single registry of applications (as there is for protocols) because there are a few different mechanisms through which an application may be registered. For each value of appLocalIndex, a corresponding entry will exist in one of several tables:

APM MIB[APM]定义了一个称为appLocalIndex的重要索引。对于APM和TPM MIB中的所有应用程序监视,应用程序由appLocalIndex的整数值标识。但是,没有单一的应用程序注册中心(就像协议一样),因为有几种不同的机制可以注册应用程序。对于appLocalIndex的每个值,对应的条目将存在于以下几个表中的一个表中:

1. The protocolDirTable - Some values of appLocalIndex correspond to protocolDirLocalIndex values assigned in the protocolDirTable. Each of these corresponds to a protocol defined by a protocolID.

1. protocolDirTable—appLocalIndex的某些值对应于ProtocolDirLocaliIndex表中指定的ProtocolDirLocaliIndex值。其中每一个都对应于由protocolID定义的协议。

2. The apmHttpFilterTable - Some values of appLocalIndex correspond to apmHttpFilterAppLocalindex values assigned in the apmHttpFilterTable. Each of these corresponds to an application verb defined as a set of HTTP transactions that match a set of filters.

2. apmHttpFilterTable-appLocalIndex的某些值对应于APMHTTPFILTERAPPPLOCATINDEX在apmHttpFilterTable中指定的值。其中每一个都对应于一个应用程序谓词,该应用程序谓词定义为一组匹配一组筛选器的HTTP事务。

3. The apmUserDefinedAppTable - Some values of appLocalIndex correspond to index values of the apmUserDefinedAppTable. Each of them corresponds to an application or application verb defined in a user-defined way.

3. APMUSERDEFineAdaptable-appLocalIndex的某些值对应于APMUSERDEFineAdaptable的索引值。它们中的每一个都对应于以用户定义的方式定义的应用程序或应用程序谓词。

Each value of appLocalIndex will only be registered in one of these tables. In effect, the appLocalIndex number space is the union of these number spaces, where these tables must work together to avoid assigning overlapping (duplicate) appLocalIndexes.


Each unique appLocalIndex value is also registered in the apmAppDirectoryTable, where a number of attributes of the application may be configured.


5.4. Data Source
5.4. 数据源

Most RMON functions use a DataSource as a pointer to the entity from which data is to be collected. The DataSource is an object identifier that identifies one of three types of data sources:




Traditional RMON dataSources. Called 'port-based' for ifType.<I> not equal to 'propVirtual(53)'. <I> is the ifIndex value.

传统的RMON数据源。为ifType调用“基于端口”。<I>不等于“propVirtual(53)”<一> 是ifIndex值。



A dataSource of this form refers to a 'Packet-based VLAN' and is called a 'VLAN-based' dataSource. <V> is the VLAN ID as defined by the IEEE 802.1Q standard. The value is between 1 and 4094 inclusive, and it represents an 802.1Q VLAN-ID with a global scope within a given bridged domain, as defined by 802.1Q.

这种形式的数据源指“基于数据包的VLAN”,称为“基于VLAN的”数据源<五> 是IEEE 802.1Q标准定义的VLAN ID。该值介于1和4094(含1和4094)之间,表示802.1Q定义的给定桥接域内具有全局作用域的802.1Q VLAN-ID。



A dataSource of this form refers to a physical entity within the agent and is called an 'entity-based' dataSource. <N> is the value of the entPhysicalIndex in the entPhysicalTable.

这种形式的数据源是指代理中的物理实体,称为“基于实体的”数据源<N> 是entPhysicalTable中entPhysicalIndex的值。

5.5. Capabilities
5.5. 能力

Probe Capabilities objects have been introduced in the RMON MIB modules with the goal of helping applications determine the capabilities of the different probes in the domain. These objects use a BITS syntax (with the exception of some of the objects in the TPM and SSPM MIBs), and list in an explicit manner the MIB groups supported by the probe, as well as functional capabilities of the specific RMON agents. By reading the values of these objects, it is possible for applications to know which RMON functions are usable without going through a trial-and-error process that can result in loss of time and bandwidth in the operational flow. These objects have the MAX-ACCESS of read-only, which defines their use as an indication of what is supported by a probe, and not a means to configure the probe for operational modes. An RMON agent SHOULD initiate the capabilities objects at agent initialization and SHOULD NOT modify the objects during operation.

在RMON MIB模块中引入了探测能力对象,目的是帮助应用程序确定域中不同探测的能力。这些对象使用BITS语法(TPM和SSPM MIB中的某些对象除外),并以显式方式列出探测器支持的MIB组以及特定RMON代理的功能。通过读取这些对象的值,应用程序可以知道哪些RMON功能可用,而无需经历可能导致操作流中时间和带宽损失的试错过程。这些对象具有只读的MAX-ACCESS,这将它们的使用定义为探针支持的指示,而不是将探针配置为操作模式的手段。RMON代理应在代理初始化时启动功能对象,并且不应在操作期间修改对象。

The probeCapabilities object in the RMON-2 MIB describes the capabilities of probes that support RMON, Token-Ring RMON and RMON-2.

RMON-2 MIB中的probeCapabilities对象描述了支持RMON、令牌环RMON和RMON-2的探测的功能。

The smonCapabilities object in the SMON MIB describes the SMON-specific capabilities of probes that support the SMON MIB.

SMON MIB中的smonCapabilities对象描述了支持SMON MIB的探测器的SMON特定功能。

The dataSourceCapsTable in the SMON MIB defines the capabilities of the SMON data sources on probes that support the RMON MIB.

SMON MIB中的dataSourceCapsTable定义了支持RMON MIB的探测器上SMON数据源的功能。

The interfaceTopNCaps object in the Interface TopN MIB defines the sorting capabilities supported by an agent that supports the Interface TopN MIB.

接口TopN MIB中的interfaceTopNCaps对象定义了支持接口TopN MIB的代理所支持的排序功能。

The dsmonCapabilities object in the DSMON MIB provides an indication of the DSMON groups supported by an agent that supports the DSMON MIB.

DSMON MIB中的dsmonCapabilities对象提供支持DSMON MIB的代理所支持的DSMON组的指示。

The tpmCapabilitiesGroup contains objects and tables, which show the measurement protocol and metric capabilities of an agent that supports the TPM MIB.

tpmCapabilitiesGroup包含对象和表,它们显示支持TPM MIB的代理的度量协议和度量能力。

The sspmCapabilitiesTable indicates whether a device supporting the SSPM MIB supports SSPM configuration of the corresponding AppLocalIndex.

sspmCapabilitiesTable表示支持SSPM MIB的设备是否支持相应AppLocalIndex的SSPM配置。

The hcAlarmCapabilities object provides an indication of the high capacity alarm capabilities supported by an agent that supports the HC-Alarm MIB.


5.6. Control Tables
5.6. 控制表

Due to the complex nature of the available functions in the RMON MIB modules, these functions often need user configuration. In many cases, the function requires parameters to be set up for a data collection operation. The operation can proceed only after these parameters are fully set up.

由于RMON MIB模块中可用功能的复杂性,这些功能通常需要用户配置。在许多情况下,该函数要求为数据采集操作设置参数。只有在完全设置这些参数后,才能继续操作。

Many functional groups in the RMON MIBs have one or more tables in which to set up control parameters, and one or more data tables in which to place the results of the operation. The control tables are typically read-write in nature, while the data tables are typically read-only. Because the parameters in the control table often describe resulting data in the data table, many of the parameters can be modified only when the control entry is invalid. Thus, the method for modifying these parameters is to invalidate the control entry, causing its deletion and the deletion of any associated data entries, and then create a new control entry with the proper parameters. Deleting the control entry also gives a convenient method for reclaiming the resources used by the associated data.

RMON MIB中的许多功能组都有一个或多个用于设置控制参数的表,以及一个或多个用于放置操作结果的数据表。控制表通常是读写性质的,而数据表通常是只读的。由于控制表中的参数通常描述数据表中的结果数据,因此只有当控制项无效时,才能修改许多参数。因此,修改这些参数的方法是使控件条目无效,导致其删除和任何相关数据条目的删除,然后使用适当的参数创建新的控件条目。删除控件条目还提供了一种方便的方法来回收关联数据所使用的资源。

To facilitate control by multiple managers, resources have to be shared among the managers. These resources are typically the memory and computation resources that a function requires.


Two facilities are used to ease cooperation between multiple managers as they create and use control tables. The first is the use of EntryStatus or RowStatus objects that guarantee that two managers can avoid creating the same control entry. The second is the use of OwnerString objects in control tables that provides the following benefits:


1. Provides information to facilitate sharing of already existing control entries instead of creating a new but identical entry.

1. 提供有助于共享现有控件项的信息,而不是创建新的相同项。

2. Provides information to allow the ultimate human owners of control entries to identify each other so they can cooperate in cases of conflict over resources.

2. 提供信息,使控件条目的最终人类所有者能够相互识别,以便在资源冲突的情况下进行合作。

3. Provides information to allow software to identify control entries that it owns but has forgotten about (e.g., due to a crash or other error) so that it can re-use or free them.

3. 提供信息,允许软件识别其拥有但已忘记(例如,由于崩溃或其他错误)的控件条目,以便重新使用或释放它们。

4. Provides information to allow an administrator to make an informed decision to override someone else's control entry when circumstances make it necessary.

4. 提供信息,允许管理员在情况需要时做出明智的决定,以覆盖其他人的控制项。

5. Provides information to identify control entries that are set up automatically when the device starts up.

5. 提供识别设备启动时自动设置的控件条目的信息。

See the RMON MIB [RFC2819] for further information on the use of control tables, EntryStatus/RowStatus, and OwnerStrings.

有关使用控制表、EntryStatus/RowStatus和Ownerstring的更多信息,请参阅RMON MIB[RFC2819]。

6. Relationship of the SSPM MIB with the APM and TPM MIBs

While APM and TPM may monitor actual traffic generated by end-users on the network, they may also monitor synthetically generated traffic. The SSPM MIB provides a mechanism for the generation of synthetic traffic but no mechanism for monitoring - the task of monitoring the generated traffic is deferred to the APM and TPM MIBs.

虽然APM和TPM可以监控最终用户在网络上生成的实际流量,但它们也可以监控综合生成的流量。SSPM MIB提供了生成合成流量的机制,但没有监控机制-监控生成流量的任务被推迟到APM和TPM MIB。

Figure 5 shows an overview of the components of the SSPM MIB architecture, including the roles played by the APM and TPM MIBs. The RMON documents address the "Control-Level" in this diagram and some aspects of the "Synchronization Control-Level". The underlying "Instrumentation-Level" is implementation dependent and outside the domain of the RMON specifications.

图5显示了SSPM MIB体系结构组件的概述,包括APM和TPM MIB所扮演的角色。RMON文档说明了此图中的“控制级别”以及“同步控制级别”的某些方面。底层的“检测级别”依赖于实现,不在RMON规范的范围内。

              +-------------|   Application  |-------------+
              |             +----------------+             |
              |                      |                     |
         +--------------------------------+                |
         |    Synchronization Control     |                |
         +--------------------------------+                |
              |                      |                     |
              V                      V                     V
   +------------------+    +------------------+      +--------------+
   |Traffic Generation|    |Monitoring Metrics|      |Data Reduction|
   |   Control        |    |   Control        |      |  Control     |
   +------------------+    +------------------+      +--------------+
              | ^                    | ^                   | ^
              | |                    | |                   | |
              V |                    V |                   V |
   +------------------+    +------------------+      +---------------+
   |Traffic Generation|    |Monitoring Metrics|      |Data Reduction |
   |   Instrumentation|    |   Instrumentation|  +-->|Instrumentation|
   +------------------+    +------------------+  |   +---------------+
                                                 |           |
                                                 |           |
                                  Various levels |           |
                                    and span     +-----------|
              +-------------|   Application  |-------------+
              |             +----------------+             |
              |                      |                     |
         +--------------------------------+                |
         |    Synchronization Control     |                |
         +--------------------------------+                |
              |                      |                     |
              V                      V                     V
   +------------------+    +------------------+      +--------------+
   |Traffic Generation|    |Monitoring Metrics|      |Data Reduction|
   |   Control        |    |   Control        |      |  Control     |
   +------------------+    +------------------+      +--------------+
              | ^                    | ^                   | ^
              | |                    | |                   | |
              V |                    V |                   V |
   +------------------+    +------------------+      +---------------+
   |Traffic Generation|    |Monitoring Metrics|      |Data Reduction |
   |   Instrumentation|    |   Instrumentation|  +-->|Instrumentation|
   +------------------+    +------------------+  |   +---------------+
                                                 |           |
                                                 |           |
                                  Various levels |           |
                                    and span     +-----------|

Figure 5: An SSPM Performance Monitoring System


It is the responsibility of the network management application to coordinate the individual aspects of the performance management system.


Within the APM, TPM, and SSPM set of RMON MIB modules:


+ APM MIB [APM] is responsible for the aspects of the "Monitoring Metrics Control" directly related to the end-user's perceived application-level performance. The APM MIB also handles aspects of "Data Reduction Control" and "Reports". Finally, when TPM MIB relies upon the control tables in the APM MIB for its own control, then APM MIB is providing some aspects of "Synchronization Control" of the reports from these two MIBs.

+ APM MIB[APM]负责与最终用户感知的应用程序级性能直接相关的“监控度量控制”方面。APM MIB还处理“数据缩减控制”和“报告”方面的问题。最后,当TPM MIB依赖APM MIB中的控制表进行自己的控制时,APM MIB提供来自这两个MIB的报告的“同步控制”的某些方面。

+ TPM MIB [TPM] is responsible for the aspects of the "Monitoring Metrics Control". TPM MIB also handles aspects of "Data Reduction Control" and "Reports" related to sub-application-level transactions. Synchronization control with APM MIB is provided by opting to rely on the APM MIB control tables within the TPM MIB.

+ TPM MIB[TPM]负责“监控度量控制”的各个方面。TPM MIB还处理与子应用程序级事务相关的“数据缩减控制”和“报告”的各个方面。通过选择依赖TPM MIB中的APM MIB控制表,可以提供与APM MIB的同步控制。

+ SSPM MIB [SSPM] is responsible for the "Traffic Generation Control" in the event that synthetic traffic is to be monitored. The other, most common, option is to monitor natural, user-generated traffic.

+ SSPM MIB[SSPM]负责监控合成流量时的“流量生成控制”。另一个最常见的选项是监控自然的、用户生成的流量。

The "Monitor Metrics Control" is essentially hard-coded in the APM MIB. Within the TPM MIB, a metrics table is used to identify the metrics monitored within a specific implementation of the TPM MIB. The "Data Reduction Control" is essentially hard-coded within the MIB structure of the APM MIB and the TPM MIB. These MIBs strictly specify the statistics to be reported within a set of report tables.

“监控度量控制”基本上是在APM MIB中硬编码的。在TPM MIB中,度量表用于标识TPM MIB特定实现中监控的度量。“数据缩减控制”基本上是在APM MIB和TPM MIB的MIB结构中硬编码的。这些MIB严格指定要在一组报告表中报告的统计信息。

Both the TPM MIB and the SSPM MIB rely upon the APM MIB's appLocalIndex to specify the application being monitored or generated. The APM MIB provides the end-user view of the application performance, e.g., the Whois transaction time. The TPM MIB, through its tpmTransMetricDirTable, identifies a set of sub-application level transactions and their metrics, which are associated with the application. E.g., an implementation of the TPM MIB could report the DNS lookup time, the TCP connect time (to the Whois Server), the Whois Req/Resp download time. The SSPM MIB could be configured to generate synthetically, these Whois transactions.

TPM MIB和SSPM MIB都依赖于APM MIB的appLocalIndex来指定要监视或生成的应用程序。APM MIB提供应用程序性能的最终用户视图,例如Whois事务时间。TPM MIB通过其TPM TransMetricDirTable标识一组与应用程序关联的子应用程序级事务及其度量。例如,TPM MIB的实现可以报告DNS查找时间、TCP连接时间(到Whois服务器)、Whois Req/Resp下载时间。SSPM MIB可以配置为综合生成这些Whois事务。

The testing model then is to first configure the traffic generation instrumentation through the SSPM MIB control function. This defines aspects of the synthetic traffic such as application type, targets, etc. Once the traffic generation is configured, the network management application can setup the monitoring instrumentation through the APM MIB and TPM MIB. These control the reporting periods, the type of data aggregation, etc. Once the tests are complete, the network management application retrieves the reports from the monitoring metrics control MIBs, e.g., APM MIB and TPM MIB.

然后,测试模型首先通过SSPM MIB控制功能配置流量生成仪表。这定义了合成流量的各个方面,如应用程序类型、目标等。一旦配置了流量生成,网络管理应用程序就可以通过APM MIB和TPM MIB设置监控仪表。这些控制报告周期、数据聚合类型等。一旦测试完成,网络管理应用程序将从监控度量控制MIB(例如APM MIB和TPM MIB)检索报告。

7. Acknowledgements
7. 致谢

This memo is a product of the RMON MIB working group. In addition, the authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions by Lester D'Souza of NetScout Systems, Inc.

本备忘录是RMON MIB工作组的产品。此外,作者感谢NetScout Systems,Inc.的Lester D'Souza所做的贡献。

8. References
8. 工具书类
8.1. Normative References
8.1. 规范性引用文件

[RFC2819] Waldbusser, S., "Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base", STD 59, RFC 2819, May 2000.

[RFC2819]Waldbusser,S.,“远程网络监控管理信息库”,STD 59,RFC 2819,2000年5月。

8.2. Informative References
8.2. 资料性引用

[RFC2026] Bradner, S., "The Internet Standards Process -- Revision 3", BCP 9, RFC 2026, October 1996.

[RFC2026]Bradner,S.,“互联网标准过程——第3版”,BCP 9,RFC 2026,1996年10月。

[RFC2578] McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D. and J. Schoenwaelder, Eds., "Structure of Management Information Version 2 (SMIv2)", STD 58, RFC 2578, April 1999.

[RFC2578]McCloghrie,K.,Perkins,D.和J.Schoenwaeld,编辑,“管理信息的结构版本2(SMIv2)”,STD 58,RFC 2578,1999年4月。

[RFC2579] McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D. and J. Schoenwaelder, J., Eds., "Textual Conventions for SMIv2", STD 58, RFC 2579, April 1999.

[RFC2579]McCloghrie,K.,Perkins,D.和J.Schoenwaeld,J.,编辑,“SMIv2的文本约定”,STD 58,RFC 2579,1999年4月。

[RFC2580] McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D. and J. Schoenwaelder, J., Eds., "Conformance Statements for SMIv2", STD 58, RFC 2580, April 1999.

[RFC2580]McCloghrie,K.,Perkins,D.和J.Schoenwaeld,J.,编辑,“SMIv2的一致性声明”,STD 58,RFC 25801999年4月。

[RFC3410] Case, J., Mundy, R., Partain, D. and B. Stewart, "Introduction and Applicability Statements for Internet-Standard Management Framework", RFC 3410, December 2002.

[RFC3410]Case,J.,Mundy,R.,Partain,D.和B.Stewart,“互联网标准管理框架的介绍和适用性声明”,RFC 34102002年12月。

[RFC1513] Waldbusser, S., "Token Ring Extensions to the Remote Network Monitoring MIB", RFC 1513, September 1993.

[RFC1513]Waldbusser,S.,“远程网络监控MIB的令牌环扩展”,RFC 1513,1993年9月。

[RFC2021] Waldbusser, S., "Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base Version 2 using SMIv2", RFC 2021, January 1997.

[RFC2021]Waldbusser,S.,“使用SMIv2的远程网络监控管理信息库版本2”,RFC 20211997年1月。

[RFC2895] Bierman, A., Bucci, C. and R. Iddon, "Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base Protocol Identification Reference", RFC 2895, August 2000.

[RFC2895]Bierman,A.,Bucci,C.和R.Iddon,“远程网络监控管理信息基础协议识别参考”,RFC 28952000年8月。

[RFC2896] Bierman, A., Bucci, C. and R. Iddon, "Remote Network Monitoring MIB Protocol Identifier Macros", RFC 2896, August 2000.

[RFC2896]Bierman,A.,Bucci,C.和R.Iddon,“远程网络监控MIB协议标识符宏”,RFC 28962000年8月。

[RFC2613] Waterman, R., Lahaye, B., Romascanu, D. and S. Waldbusser, "Remote Network Monitoring MIB Extensions for Switched Networks Version 1.0", RFC 2613, June 1999.

[RFC2613]Waterman,R.,Lahaye,B.,Romascanu,D.和S.Waldbusser,“交换网络1.0版的远程网络监控MIB扩展”,RFC 2613,1999年6月。

[RFC3144] Waldbusser, S., "Remote Monitoring MIB Extensions for Interface Parameters Monitoring", RFC 3144, August 2001.


[RFC3287] Bierman, A., "Remote Monitoring MIB Extensions for Differentiated Services", RFC 3287, July 2002.


[RFC3273] Waldbusser, S., "Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base for High Capacity Networks", RFC 3273, July 2002.


[APM] Waldbusser, S., "Application performance measurement MIB", Work in Progress.


[RFC3395] Bierman, A., Bucci, C., Dietz, R. and A. Warth, "Remote Network Monitoring MIB Protocol Identifier Reference Extensions", RFC 3395, September 2002.

[RFC3395]Bierman,A.,Bucci,C.,Dietz,R.和A.Warth,“远程网络监控MIB协议标识符参考扩展”,RFC 33952002年9月。

[TPM] Dietz, R. and R.G.Cole, "Application Performance Measurement Framework Transport Performance Metrics MIB", Work in Progress.


[SSPM] Kalbfleisch, K., Cole, R.G. and D. Romascanu, "Definition of Managed Objects for Synthetic Sources for Performance Monitoring Algorithms", Work in Progress.


[RFC3434] Bierman, A. and K. McCloghrie, "Remote Monitoring MIB Extensions for High Capacity Alarms", RFC 3434, December 2002.

[RFC3434]Bierman,A.和K.McCloghrie,“高容量警报的远程监控MIB扩展”,RFC 3434,2002年12月。

[RFC2233] McCloghrie, K. and F. Kastenholz, "The Interfaces Group MIB Using SMIv2", RFC 2233, November 1997.

[RFC2233]McCloghrie,K.和F.Kastenholz,“使用SMIv2的接口组MIB”,RFC 2233,1997年11月。

[RFC2863] McCloghrie, K. and F. Kastenholz, "The Interfaces Group MIB", RFC 2863, June 2000.

[RFC2863]McCloghrie,K.和F.Kastenholz,“接口组MIB”,RFC 28632000年6月。

[RFC2330] Paxson, V., Almes, G., Mahdavi, J. and M. Mathis, "Framework for IP Performance Metrics", RFC 2330, May 1998.

[RFC2330]Paxson,V.,Almes,G.,Mahdavi,J.和M.Mathis,“IP性能度量框架”,RFC 2330,1998年5月。

[OWDP] Shalunov, S., Teitelbaum, B. and M. Zekauskas, "A One-way Active Measurement Protocol", Work in Progress.


[RAQMON-FRAMEWORK] Siddiqui, A., Romascanu, D. and E. Golovinsky, "Real-time Application Quality of Service Monitoring (RAQMON) Framework", Work in Progress.


[RAQMON-MIB] Siddiqui, A., Romascanu, D., Golovinsky, E. and R. Smith, "Real-Time Application Quality of Service Monitoring (RAQMON) MIB", Work in Progress.


9. Security Considerations
9. 安全考虑

This document is a description of existing documents and as such it does not have any security impact. In order to understand the security-related issues of the different RMON documents, the reader is directed to the Security Considerations sections of the respective documents.


10. Authors' Addresses
10. 作者地址

Steve Waldbusser


   Phone: +1 650-948-6500
   Fax:   +1 650-745-0671
   Phone: +1 650-948-6500
   Fax:   +1 650-745-0671

Carl W. Kalbfleisch NTT/VERIO 8700 Stemmons Freeway, Suite 211 Dallas, TX 75247 United States

Carl W.Kalbflish NTT/VERIO 8700 Stemmons高速公路,美国德克萨斯州达拉斯211号套房,邮编75247

   Phone: +1 972-906-2034
   Phone: +1 972-906-2034

Robert G. Cole AT&T Labs Network Design and Performance Analysis Department 330 Saint John Street, 2nd Floor Havre de Grace, MD 21078 United States

Robert G.Cole AT&T实验室网络设计和性能分析部美国马里兰州哈弗雷德格雷斯圣约翰街330号2楼21078

   Phone: +1 410-939-8732
   Fax: +1 410-939-8732
   Phone: +1 410-939-8732
   Fax: +1 410-939-8732

Dan Romascanu Avaya Atidim Technology Park, Bldg. #3 Tel Aviv, 61131 Israel

以色列特拉维夫3号楼Dan Romascanu Avaya Atidim技术园,61131

   Phone: +972-3-645-8414
   Phone: +972-3-645-8414
11. Full Copyright Statement
11. 完整版权声明

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